1. Ferenci P, Fried M, Labrecque D, Bruix J, Sherman M, Omata M, Heathcote J, Piratsivuth T, Kew M, Otegbayo JA, Zheng SS, Sarin S, Hamid SS, Modawi SB, Fleig W, Fedail S, Thomson A, Khan A, Malfertheiner P, Lau G, Carillo FJ, Krabshuis J, Le Mair A, World Gastroenterology Organization. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a global perspective. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010;44:239-45.

2. Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R, Andreola S, Pulvirenti A, Bozzetti F, Montalto F, Ammatuna M, Morabito A, Gennari L. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellularcarcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1996;334:693-9.

3. Yao FY, Ferrell L, Bass NM, Watson JJ, Bacchetti P, Venook A, Ascher NL, Roberts JP. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: expansion of the tumor size limits does not adversely impact survival. Hepatology 2001;33:1394-403.

4. Lee WC, Lee CF, Cheng CH, Wu TJ, Chou HS, Wu TH, Soong RS, Chan KM, Yu MC, Chen MF. Outcomes of liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplantation era. Eur J Surg Oncol 2015;41:1144-52.

5. Meza-Junco J, Montano-Loza AJ, Liu DM, Sawyer MB, Bain VG, Ma M, Owen R. Locoregional radiological treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma; which, when and how? Cancer Treat Rev 2012;38:54-62.

6. Ray CE Jr, Haskal ZJ, Geschwind JF, Funaki BS. The use of transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a response to the Cochrane Collaboration review of 2011. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2011;22:1693-6.

7. Raoul JL, Sangro B, Forner A, Mazzaferro V, Piscaglia F, Bolondi L, Lencioni R. Evolving strategies for the management of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: available evidence and expert opinion on the use of transarterial chemoembolization. Cancer Treat Rev 2011;37:212-20.

8. Cheng AL, Kang YK, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Luo R, Feng J, Ye S, Yang TS, Xu J, Sun Y, Liang H, Liu J, Wang J, Tak WY, Pan H, Burock K, Zou J, Voliotis D, Guan Z. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:25-34.

9. Kudo M. Molecular targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: bench to bedside. Dig Dis 2011;29:273-7.

10. Ling TC, Kang JI, Bush DA, Slater JD, Yang GY. Proton therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Chin J Cancer Res 2012;24:367-73.

11. Ishikawa T. Chemotherapy with enteric-coated tegafur/uracil for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:2797-801.

12. Forner A, Reig ME, de Lope CR, Bruix J. Current strategy for staging and treatment: the BCLC update and future prospects. Semin Liver Dis 2010;30:61-74.

13. Kurkjian C, Kummar S, Murgo AJ. DNA methylation: its role in cancer development and therapy. Curr Probl Cancer 2008;32:187-235.

14. Palucka K, Banchereau J. Dendritic-cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines. Immunity 2013;39:38-48.

15. Lotze MT. Getting to the source: dendritic cells as therapeutic reagents for the treatment of patients with cancer. Ann Surg 1997;226:1-5.

16. Gabrilovich DI, Ciernik IF, Carbone DP. Dendritic cells in antitumor immune responses. I. Defective antigen presentation in tumor-bearing hosts. Cell Immunol 1996;170:101-10.

17. Tarte K, Klein B. Dendritic cell-based vaccine: a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Leukemia 1999;13:653-63.

18. Grabbe S, Beissert S, Schwarz T, Granstein RD. Dendritic cells as initiators of tumor immune responses: a possible of tumor immune strategy for tumor immunotherapy. Immunol Today 1995;16:117-21.

19. Hsu FJ, Benike C, Fagnoni F, Liles TM, Czerwinski D, Taidi B, Engleman EG, Levy R. Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 1996;2:52-8.

20. Nestle FO, Alijagic S, Gilliet M, Sun Y, Grabbe S, Dummer R, Burg G, Schadendorf D. Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide- or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 1998;4:328-32.

21. Höltl L, Rieser C, Papesh C, Ramoner R, Bartsch G, Thurnher M. CD83+ blood dendritic cells as a vaccine for immunotherapy of metastatic renal-cell cancer. Lancet 1998;352:1358.

22. Di Lorenzo G, Buonerba C, Kantoff PW. Immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2011;8:551-61.

23. Bauer C, Dauer M, Saraj S, Schnurr M, Bauernfeind F, Sterzik A, Junkmann J, Jakl V, Kiefl R, Oduncu F, Emmerich B, Mayr D, Mussack T, Bruns C, Rüttinger D, Conrad C, Jauch KW, Endres S, Eigler A. Dendritic cell-based vaccination of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: results of a pilot study. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2011;60:1097-107.

24. Tarte K, Klein B. Dendritic cell-based vaccine: a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Leukemia 1999;13:653-63.

25. Lee WC, Wang HC, Hung CF, Huang PF, Lia CR, Chen MF. Vaccination of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells: a clinical trial. J Immunither 2005;28:496-504.

26. Wang HY, Wang RF. Regulatory T cells and cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 2007;19:217-23.

27. Lee WC, Wu TJ, Chou HS, Yu MC, Hsu PY, Hsu HY, Wang CC. The impact of CD4+CD25+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgery 2012;151:213-22.

28. Vignali DA, Collison LW, Workman CJ. How regulatory T cells work. Nat Rev Immunol 2008;8:523-32.

29. Huang CH, Hou YC, Pai MH, Yeh CL, Yeh SL. Dietary omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios affect the homeostasis of Th/Treg cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2017;41:647-56.

30. Chen X, Du Y, Lin X, Qian Y, Zhou T, Huang Z. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in tumor immunity. Int Immunopharmacol 2016;34:244-9.

31. Kindlund B, Sjöling Å, Yakkala C, Adamsson J, Janzon A, Hansson LE, Hermansson M, Janson P, Winqvist O, Lundin SB. CD4+ regulatory T cells in gastric cancer mucosa are proliferating and express high levels of IL-10 but little TGF-beta. Gastric Cancer 2017;20:116-25.

32. Shen LS, Wang J, Shen DF, Yuan XL, Dong P, Li MX, Xue J, Zhang FM, Ge HL, Xu D. CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) regulatory T cells express Foxp3 and suppress effector T cell proliferation and contribute to gastric cancers progression. Clin Immunol 2009;131:109-18.

33. Xu T, Duan Q, Wang G, Hu B. CD4 + CD25high regulatory T cell numbers and FOXP3 mRNA expression in patients with advanced esophageal cancer before and after chemotherapy. Cell Biochem Biophys 2011;61:389-92.

34. Kim S, Lee A, Lim W, Park S, Cho MS, Koo H, Moon BI, Sung SH. Zonal difference and prognostic significance of foxp3 regulatory T cell infiltration in breast cancer. J Breast Cancer 2014;17:8-17.

35. O'Callaghan DS, Rexhepaj E, Gately K, Coate L, Delaney D, O'Donnell DM, Kay E, O'Connell F, Gallagher WM, O'Byrne KJ. Tumour islet Foxp3+ T-cell infiltration predicts poor outcome in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Eur Respir J 2015;46:1762-72.

36. Lee WC, Wu TJ, Chou HS, Yu MC, Hsu PY, Hsu HY, Wang CC. The impact of CD4+ CD25+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgery 2012;151:213-22.

37. Gabrilovich DI, Bronte V, Chen SH, Colombo MP, Ochoa A, Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Schreiber H. The terminology issue for myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Res 2007;67:425; author reply 426.

38. Movahedi K, Guilliams M, Van den Bossche J, Van den Bergh R, Gysemans C, Beschin A, De Baetselier P, Van Ginderachter JA. Identification of discrete tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cell subpopulations with distinct T cell-suppressive activity. Blood 2008;111:4233-44.

39. Peranzoni E, Zilio S, Marigo I, Dolcetti L, Zanovello P, Mandruzzato S, Bronte V. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition. Curr Opin Immunol 2010;22:238-44.

40. Ueha S, Shand FH, Matsushima K. Myeloid cell population dynamics in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Int Immunopharmacol 2011;11:783-8.

41. Ko JS, Rayman P, Ireland J, Swaidani S, Li G, Bunting KD, Rini B, Finke JH, Cohen PA. Direct and differential suppression of myeloid-derived suppressor cell subsets by sunitinib is compartmentally constrained. Cancer Res 2010;70:3526-36.

42. Ozao-Choy J, Ma G, Kao J, Wang GX, Meseck M, Sung M, Schwartz M, Divino CM, Pan PY, Chen SH. The novel role of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the reversal of immune suppression and modulation of tumor microenvironment for immune-based cancer therapies. Cancer Res 2009;69:2514-22.

43. Daurkin I, Eruslanov E, Vieweg J, Kusmartsev S. Generation of antigen-presenting cells from tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells with DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2010;59:697-706.

44. Gabrilovich DI. Combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy for cancer: a paradigm revisited. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:2-3.

45. Kusmartsev S, Cheng F, Yu B, Nefedova Y, Sotomayor E, Lush R, Gabrilovich D. All-trans-retinoic acid eliminates immature myeloid cells from tumor-bearing mice and improves the effect of vaccination. Cancer Res 2003;63:4441-9.

46. De Santo C, Serafini P, Marigo I, Dolcetti L, Bolla M, Del Soldato P, Melani C, Guiducci C, Colombo MP, Iezzi M, Musiani P, Zanovello P, Bronte V. Nitroaspirin corrects immune dysfunction in tumor-bearing hosts and promotes tumor eradication by cancer vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:4185-90.

47. Suzuki E, Kapoor V, Jassar AS, Kaiser LR, Albelda SM. Gemcitabine selectively eliminates splenic Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid suppressor cells in tumor-bearing animals and enhances antitumor immune activity. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:6713-21.

48. Mirza N, Fishman M, Fricke I, Dunn M, Neuger AM, Frost TJ, Lush RM, Antonia S, Gabrilovich DI. All-trans-retinoic acid improves differentiation of myeloid cells and immune response in cancer patients. Cancer Res 2006;66:9299-307.

49. Iwashita Y, Tahara K, Goto S, Sasaki A, Kai S, Seike M, Chen CL, Kawano K, Kitano S. A phase I study of autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for patients with unresectable primary liver cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2003;52:155-61.

50. Palmer DH, Midgley RS, Mirza N, Torr EE, Ahmed F, Steele JC, Steven NM, Kerr DJ, Young LS, Adams DH. A phase II study of adoptive immunotherapy using dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2009;49:124-32.

51. Qiu Y, Xu MB, Yun MM, Wang YZ, Zhang RM, Meng XK, Ou-Yang XH, Yun S. Hepatocellular carcinoma-specific immunotherapy with synthesized alpha1,3- galactosyl epitope-pulsed dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17:5260-6.

52. Nakamoto Y, Mizukoshi E, Tsuji H, Sakai Y, Kitahara M, Arai K, Yamashita T, Yokoyama K, Mukaida N, Matsushima K, Matsui O, Kaneko S. Combined therapy of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with intratumoral dendritic cell infusion for hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical safety. Clin Exp Immunol 2007;147:296-305.

53. Sangro B, Gomez-Martin C, de la Mata M, I-arrairaegui M, Garralda E, Barrera P, Riezu-Boj JI, Larrea E, Alfaro C, Sarobe P, Lasarte JJ, Pérez-Gracia JL, Melero I, Prieto J. A clinical trial of CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2013;59:81-8.

54. El-Khoueiry AB, Sangro B, Yau T, Crocenzi TS, Kudo M, Hsu C, Kim TY, Choo SP, Trojan J, Welling TH Rd, Meyer T, Kang YK, Yeo W, Chopra A, Anderson J, Dela Cruz C, Lang L, Neely J, Tang H, Dastani HB, Melero I. Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CheckMate 040): an open-label, non-comparative, phase 1/2 dose escalation and expansion trial. Lancet 2017;389:2492-502.

55. Brenner MK, Heslop HE. Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 2010;22:251-7.

56. Takayama T, Sekine T, Makuuchi M, Yamasaki S, Kosuge T, Yamamoto J, Shimada K, Sakamoto M, Hirohashi S, Ohashi Y, Kakizoe T. Adoptive immunotherapy to lower postsurgical recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:802-7.

57. Jiang SS, Tang Y, Zhang YJ, Weng DS, Zhou ZG, Pan K, Pan QZ, Wang QJ, Liu Q, He J, Zhao JJ, Li J, Chen MS, Chang AE, Li Q, Xia JC. A phase I clinical trial utilizing autologous tumor-infiltratinglymphocytes in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget 2015;6:41339-49.

58. Shi M, Bing Zhang, Tang ZR, Lei ZY, Wang HF, Feng YY, Fan ZP, Xu DP, Wang FS. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cell therapy in clinical trial phaseI is safe in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2004;10:1146-51.

59. Hao M, Lin H, Chen Q, Ye YB, Chen QZ, Chen MS. Efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolizationcombined with cytokineinduced killer cell therapy onhepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative study. Chin J Cancer 2010;29:172-7.

60. Su Y, Yang Y, Ma Y, Zhang Y, Rao W, Yang G, Kou C. The efficacy and safety of dendritic cells co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer cell therapy in combination with TACE-predominant minimally-invasive treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Clin Lab 2016;62:599-608.

61. Hong Y, Huang J. Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Hepatol 2015;7:1581-5.

62. Sun Z, Zhu Y, Xia J, Sawakami T, Kokudo N, Zhang N. Status of and prospects for cancer vaccines against hepatocellular carcinoma in clinical trials. Biosci Trends 2016;10:85-91.

63. Aref AM, Hoa NT, Ge L, Agrawal A, Dacosta-Iyer M, Lambrecht N, Ouyang Y, Cornforth AN, Jadus MR. HCA519/TPX2: a potential T-cell tumor-associated antigen for human hepatocellular carcinoma. Onco Targets Ther 2014;7:1061-70.

64. Zhu Z, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wang C, Li R, Liu H, Gu B, Li G, Zhang S. Screening and identification of the tumor-associated antigen CK10, a novel potential liver cancer marker. FEBS Open Bio 2017;7:627-35.

Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
ISSN 2454-2857 (Online) 2394-4722 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: