1. Kaliki S, Shields CL, Shields JA. Uveal melanoma: estimating prognosis. Indian J Ophthalmol 2015;63:93-102.

2. Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. Assessment of metastatic disease status at death in 435 patients with large choroidal melanoma in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS): COMS report no. 15. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:670-6.

3. Ewens KG, Kanetsky PA, Richards-Yutz J, Purrazzella J, Shields CL, Ganguly T, Ganguly A. Chromosome 3 status combined with BAP1 and EIF1AX mutation profiles are associated with metastasis in uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55:5160-7.

4. Damato B, Eleuteri A, Taktak AF, Coupland SE. Estimating prognosis for survival after treatment of choroidal melanoma. Prog Retin Eye Res 2011;30:285-95.

5. Singh AD, Turell ME, Topham AK. Uveal melanoma: trends in incidence, treatment, and survival. Ophthalmology 2011;118:1881-5.

6. Malina HZ, Martin XD. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: antioxidant enzyme in the human eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1996;234:457-62.

7. Bronkhorst IH, Vu TH, Jordanova ES, Luyten GP, Burg SH, Jager MJ. Different subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with macrophage influx and monosomy 3 in uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:5370-8.

8. Bronkhorst IH, Ly LV, Jordanova ES, Vrolijk J, Versluis M, Luyten GP, Jager MJ. Detection of M2-macrophages in uveal melanoma and relation with survival. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:643-50.

9. Makitie T, Summanen P, Tarkkanen A, Kivela T. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages (CD68(+) cells) and prognosis in malignant uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001;42:1414-21.

10. Mougiakakos D, Johansson CC, Trocme E, All-Ericsson C, Economou MA, Larsson O, Seregard S, Kiessling R. Intratumoral forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells predict poor survival in cyclooxygenase-2-positive uveal melanoma. Cancer 2010;116:2224-33.

11. Vetter CS, Lieb W, Brocker EB, Becker JC. Loss of nonclassical MHC molecules MIC-A/B expression during progression of uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer 2004;91:1495-9.

12. Elinav E, Nowarski R, Thaiss CA, Hu B, Jin C, Flavell RA. Inflammation-induced cancer: crosstalk between tumours, immune cells and microorganisms. Nat Rev Cancer 2013;13:759-71.

13. Vidal-Vanaclocha F. The prometastatic microenvironment of the liver. Cancer Microenviron 2008;1:113-29.

14. Bakalian S, Marshall JC, Logan P, Faingold D, Maloney S, Di Cesare S, Martins C, Fernandes BF, Burnier MN, Jr. Molecular pathways mediating liver metastasis in patients with uveal melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:951-6.

15. van den Bosch T, Koopmans AE, Vaarwater J, van den Berg M, de Klein A, Verdijk RM. Chemokine receptor CCR7 expression predicts poor outcome in uveal melanoma and relates to liver metastasis whereas expression of CXCR4 is not of clinical relevance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54:7354-61.

16. Li H, Alizadeh H, Niederkorn JY. Differential expression of chemokine receptors on uveal melanoma cells and their metastases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49:636-43.

17. Yoshida M, Selvan S, McCue PA, DeAngelis T, Baserga R, Fujii A, Rui H, Mastrangelo MJ, Sato T. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in metastatic uveal melanoma and implications for potential autocrine and paracrine tumor cell growth. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2014;27:297-308.

18. Economou MA, All-Ericsson C, Bykov V, Girnita L, Bartolazzi A, Larsson O, Seregard S. Receptors for the liver synthesized growth factors IGF-1 and HGF/SF in uveal melanoma: intercorrelation and prognostic implications. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:4372-5.

19. Helgadottir H, Hoiom V. The genetics of uveal melanoma: current insights. Appl Clin Genet 2016;9:147-55.

20. van den Bosch T, Kilic E, Paridaens D, de Klein A. Genetics of uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma: two of a kind? Dermatol Res Pract 2010;2010:360136.

21. Harbour JW, Onken MD, Roberson ED, Duan S, Cao L, Worley LA, Council ML, Matatall KA, Helms C, Bowcock AM. Frequent mutation of BAP1 in metastasizing uveal melanomas. Science 2010;330:1410-3.

22. Kalirai H, Dodson A, Faqir S, Damato BE, Coupland SE. Lack of BAP1 protein expression in uveal melanoma is associated with increased metastatic risk and has utility in routine prognostic testing. Br J Cancer 2014;111:1373-80.

23. McCarthy C, Kalirai H, Lake SL, Dodson A, Damato BE, Coupland SE. Insights into genetic alterations of liver metastases from uveal melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2016;29:60-7.

24. Trolet J, Hupé P, Huon I, Lebigot I, Decraene C, Delattre O, Sastre-Garau X, Saule S, Thiéry JP, Plancher C, Asselain B, Desjardins L, Mariani P, Piperno-Neumann S, Barillot E, Couturier J. Genomic profiling and identification of high-risk uveal melanoma by array CGH analysis of primary tumors and liver metastases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:2572-80.

25. Van den Eynden GG, Majeed AW, Illemann M, Vermeulen PB, Bird NC, Hoyer-Hansen G, Eefsen RL, Reynolds AR, Brodt P. The multifaceted role of the microenvironment in liver metastasis: biology and clinical implications. Cancer Res 2013;73:2031-43.

26. Bai L, Mao GP, Cao CP. Effects of inflammatory cytokines on the recurrence of liver cancer after an apparently curative operation. J Dig Dis 2007;8:154-9.

27. Martin-Padura I, Mortarini R, Lauri D, Bernasconi S, Sanchez-Madrid F, Parmiani G, Mantovani A, Anichini A, Dejana E. Heterogeneity in human melanoma cell adhesion to cytokine activated endothelial cells correlates with VLA-4 expression. Cancer Res 1991;51:2239-41.

28. Zhu B, Lin N, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Cheng H, Chen S, Ling Y, Pan W, Xu R. Activated hepatic stellate cells promote angiogenesis via interleukin-8 in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Transl Med 2015;13:365.

29. Racanelli V, Rehermann B. The liver as an immunological organ. Hepatology 2006;43:S54-62.

30. Jenne CN, Kubes P. Immune surveillance by the liver. Nat Immunol 2013;14:996-1006.

31. Naito M, Hasegawa G, Takahashi K. Development, differentiation, and maturation of Kupffer cells. Microsc Res Tech 1997;39:350-64.

32. Bilzer M, Roggel F, Gerbes AL. Role of Kupffer cells in host defense and liver disease. Liver Int 2006;26:1175-86.

33. Kimura Y, Inoue A, Hangai S, Saijo S, Negishi H, Nishio J, Yamasaki S, Iwakura Y, Yanai H, Taniguchi T. The innate immune receptor Dectin-2 mediates the phagocytosis of cancer cells by Kupffer cells for the suppression of liver metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:14097-102.

34. Yin C, Evason KJ, Asahina K, Stainier DY. Hepatic stellate cells in liver development, regeneration, and cancer. J Clin Invest 2013;123:1902-10.

35. Cheng H, Terai M, Kageyama K, Ozaki S, McCue PA, Sato T, Aplin AE. Paracrine effect of NRG1 and HGF drives resistance to MEK inhibitors in metastatic uveal melanoma. Cancer Res 2015;75:2737-48.

36. Martin D, Galisteo R, Gutkind JS. CXCL8/IL8 stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the autocrine activation of VEGFR2 in endothelial cells by activating NFkappaB through the CBM (Carma3/Bcl10/Malt1) complex. J Biol Chem 2009;284:6038-42.

37. Norris CA, He M, Kang LI, Ding MQ, Radder JE, Haynes MM, Yang Y, Paranjpe S, Bowen WC, Orr A, Michalopoulos GK, Stolz DB, Mars WM. Synthesis of IL-6 by hepatocytes is a normal response to common hepatic stimuli. PLoS One 2014;9:e96053.

38. Grossniklaus HE, Zhang Q, You S, McCarthy C, Heegaard S, Coupland SE. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns. Hum Pathol 2016;57:165-75.

39. Male V. Liver-resident NK cells: the human factor. Trends Immunol 2017;38:307-9.

40. Bandyopadhyay K, Marrero I, Kumar V. NKT cell subsets as key participants in liver physiology and pathology. Cell Mol Immunol 2016;13:337-46.

41. Tiegs G, Lohse AW. Immune tolerance: what is unique about the liver. J Autoimmun 2010;34:1-6.

42. Franceschini D, Paroli M, Francavilla V, Videtta M, Morrone S, Labbadia G, Cerino A, Mondelli MU, Barnaba V. PD-L1 negatively regulates CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs by limiting STAT-5 phosphorylation in patients chronically infected with HCV. J Clin Invest 2009;119:551-64.

43. Pilotte L, Larrieu P, Stroobant V, Colau D, Dolusic E, Frederick R, De Plaen E, Uyttenhove C, Wouters J, Masereel B, Van den Eynde BJ. Reversal of tumoral immune resistance by inhibition of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:2497-502.

44. Platten M, von Knebel Doeberitz N, Oezen I, Wick W, Ochs K. Cancer immunotherapy by targeting IDO1/TDO and their downstream effectors. Front Immunol 2014;5:673.

45. Crispe IN. Hepatic T cells and liver tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:51-62.

46. Schildberg FA, Sharpe AH, Turley SJ. Hepatic immune regulation by stromal cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2015;32:1-6.

47. Ozaki S, Vuyyuru R, Kageyama K, Terai M, Ohara M, Cheng H, Manser T, Mastrangelo MJ, Aplin AE, Sato T. Establishment and characterization of orthotopic mouse models for human uveal melanoma hepatic colonization. Am J Pathol 2016;186:43-56.

48. Robinson MW, Harmon C, O'Farrelly C. Liver immunology and its role in inflammation and homeostasis. Cell Mol Immunol 2016;13:267-76.

49. Krishna Y, McCarthy C, Kalirai H, Coupland SE. Inflammatory cell infiltrates in advanced metastatic uveal melanoma. Hum Pathol 2017;66:159-66.

50. Vidal-Vanaclocha F, Fantuzzi G, Mendoza L, Fuentes AM, Anasagasti MJ, Martín J, Carrascal T, Walsh P, Reznikov LL, Kim SH, Novick D, Rubinstein M, Dinarello CA. IL-18 regulates IL-1beta-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis via vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:734-9.

51. Tecchio C, Micheletti A, Cassatella MA. Neutrophil-derived cytokines: facts beyond expression. Front Immunol 2014;5:508.

52. Auguste P, Fallavollita L, Wang N, Burnier J, Bikfalvi A, Brodt P. The host inflammatory response promotes liver metastasis by increasing tumor cell arrest and extravasation. Am J Pathol 2007;170:1781-92.

53. Kumar V, Patel S, Tcyganov E, Gabrilovich DI. The nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Trends Immunol 2016;37:208-20.

54. Qin Y, Petaccia de Macedo M, Reuben A, Forget MA, Haymaker C, Bernatchez C, Spencer CN, Gopalakrishnan V, Reddy S, Cooper ZA, Fulbright OJ, Ramachandran R, Wahl A, Flores E, Thorsen ST, Tavera RJ, Conrad C, Williams MD, Tetzlaff MT, Wang WL, Gombos DS, Esmaeli B, Amaria RN, Hwu P, Wargo JA, Lazar AJ, Patel SP. Parallel profiling of immune infiltrate subsets in uveal melanoma versus cutaneous melanoma unveils similarities and differences: a pilot study. Oncoimmunology 2017;6:e1321187.

55. Yamamoto A, Chervoneva I, Sullivan KL, Eschelman DJ, Gonsalves CF, Mastrangelo MJ, Berd D, Shields JA, Shields CL, Terai M, Sato T. High-dose immunoembolization: survival benefit in patients with hepatic metastases from uveal melanoma. Radiology 2009;252:290-8.

56. Valsecchi ME, Terai M, Eschelman DJ, Gonsalves CF, Chervoneva I, Shields JA, Shields CL, Yamamoto A, Sullivan KL, Laudadio M, Berd D, Mastrangelo MJ, Sato T. Double-blinded, randomized phase II study using embolization with or without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in uveal melanoma with hepatic metastases. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2015;26:523-32.e2.

57. Hodi FS, O'Day SJ, McDermott DF, Weber RW, Sosman JA, Haanen JB, Gonzalez R, Robert C, Schadendorf D, Hassel JC, Akerley W, van den Eertwegh AJ, Lutzky J, Lorigan P, Vaubel JM, Linette GP, Hogg D, Ottensmeier CH, Lebbé C, Peschel C, Quirt I, Clark JI, Wolchok JD, Weber JS, Tian J, Yellin MJ, Nichol GM, Hoos A, Urba WJ. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 2010;363:711-23.

58. Robert C, Thomas L, Bondarenko I, O'Day S, Weber J, Garbe C, Lebbe C, Baurain JF, Testori A, Grob JJ, Davidson N, Richards J, Maio M, Hauschild A, Miller WH Jr, Gascon P, Lotem M, Harmankaya K, Ibrahim R, Francis S, Chen TT, Humphrey R, Hoos A, Wolchok JD. Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2517-26.

59. Topalian SL, Sznol M, McDermott DF, Kluger HM, Carvajal RD, Sharfman WH, Brahmer JR, Lawrence DP, Atkins MB, Powderly JD, Leming PD, Lipson EJ, Puzanov I, Smith DC, Taube JM, Wigginton JM, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Pardoll DM, Sosman JA, Hodi FS. Survival, durable tumor remission, and long-term safety in patients with advanced melanoma receiving nivolumab. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1020-30.

60. Algazi AP, Tsai KK, Shoushtari AN, Munhoz RR, Eroglu Z, Piulats JM, Ott PA, Johnson DB, Hwang J, Daud AI, Sosman JA, Carvajal RD, Chmielowski B, Postow MA, Weber JS, Sullivan RJ. Clinical outcomes in metastatic uveal melanoma treated with PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies. Cancer 2016;122:3344-53.

61. Maio M, Danielli R, Chiarion-Sileni V, Pigozzo J, Parmiani G, Ridolfi R, De Rosa F, Del Vecchio M, Di Guardo L, Queirolo P, Picasso V, Marchetti P, De Galitiis F, Mandalà M, Guida M, Simeone E, Ascierto PA. Efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with pre-treated, uveal melanoma. Ann Oncol 2013;24:2911-5.

62. Luke JJ, Callahan MK, Postow MA, Romano E, Ramaiya N, Bluth M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Lawrence DP, Ibrahim N, Ott PA, Flaherty KT, Sullivan RJ, Harding JJ, D'Angelo S, Dickson M, Schwartz GK, Chapman PB, Wolchok JD, Hodi FS, Carvajal RD. Clinical activity of ipilimumab for metastatic uveal melanoma: a retrospective review of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and University Hospital of Lausanne experience. Cancer 2013;119:3687-95.

63. Javed A, Arguello D, Johnston C, Gatalica Z, Orloff MM, Mastrangelo MJ, Sato T. Disparity in PD-L1 expression between metastatic uveal and cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2016;ASCO 2016:abstract 9541.

64. Tumeh PC, Hellmann MD, Hamid O, Tsai KK, Loo KL, Gubens MA, Rosenblum M, Harview CL, Taube JM, Handley N, Khurana N, Nosrati A, Krummel MF, Tucker A, Sosa EV, Sanchez PJ, Banayan N, Osorio JC, Nguyen-Kim DL, Chang J, Shintaku IP, Boasberg PD, Taylor EJ, Munster PN, Algazi AP, Chmielowski B, Dummer R, Grogan TR, Elashoff D, Hwang J, Goldinger SM, Garon EB, Pierce RH, Daud A. Liver metastasis and treatment outcome with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody in patients with melanoma and NSCLC. Cancer Immunol Res 2017;5:417-24.

65. Chandran SS, Somerville RP, Yang JC, Sherry RM, Klebanoff CA, Goff SL, Wunderlich JR, Danforth DN, Zlott D, Paria BC, Sabesan AC, Srivastava AK, Xi L, Pham TH, Raffeld M, White DE, Toomey MA, Rosenberg SA, Kammula US. Treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma with adoptive transfer of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a single-centre, two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol 2017;18:792-802.

66. Rothermel LD, Sabesan AC, Stephens DJ, Chandran SS, Paria BC, Srivastava AK, Somerville R, Wunderlich JR, Lee CC, Xi L, Pham TH, Raffeld M, Jailwala P, Kasoji M, Kammula US. Identification of an immunogenic subset of metastatic uveal melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 2016;22:2237-49.

67. de Vries TJ, Trancikova D, Ruiter DJ, van Muijen GN. High expression of immunotherapy candidate proteins gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1 in uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer 1998;78:1156-61.

68. Bol KF, Mensink HW, Aarntzen EH, Schreibelt G, Keunen JE, Coulie PG, de Klein A, Punt CJ, Paridaens D, Figdor CG, de Vries IJ. Long overall survival after dendritic cell vaccination in metastatic uveal melanoma patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2014;158:939-47.

69. Middleton MR, Corrie P, Sznol M, Infante J, Mulatero C, Evans J, Steven N, Krige D, Shingler WH, McGrath Y, Hassan NJ, Jakobsen BK. A phase I/IIa study of IMCgp100: partial and complete durable responses with a novel first-in-class immunotherapy for advanced melanoma. Cancer Res 2015;75:abstract CT106.

70. Sato T, Nathan PD, Hernandez-Aya LF, Sacco JJ, Orloff MM, Truscello J, McAlpine C, Hulstine A-M, Lanasa MC, Coughlin CM, Carvajal RD. Intra-patient escalation dosing strategy with IMCgp100 results in mitigation of T-cell based toxicity and preliminary efficacy in advanced uveal melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2017;ASCO 2017:abstract 9531.

71. Esmaeli B, Williams MD, Soheili A, Gombos DS, Simantov R. GPNMB expression in uveal melanomas: a potential for targeted therapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:3385.

72. Patel S, Lewis KD, Olencki T, Hernandez-Aya L, Joseph R, Williamson S, Chandra S, Shirai K, Moscow J. A Phase II Study of Glembatumumab Vedotin for Metastatic Uveal Melanoma. Avaliable from: [Last accessed on 23 Oct 2017].

Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
ISSN 2454-2857 (Online) 2394-4722 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: