1. Tong CWS, Wu M, Cho WCS, To KKW. Recent advances in the treatment of breast cancer. Front Oncol 2018;8:227.
2. Wind NS, Holen I. Multidrug resistance in breast cancer: from in vitro models to clinical studies. Int J Breast Cancer 2011;2011:967419.
3. Hong D, Fritz AJ, Zaidi SK, Van Wijnen AJ, Nickerson JA, et al. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells contribute to breast cancer heterogeneity. J Cell Physiol 2018;233:9136-44.
4. Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, Davudian S, Shirjang S, Baradaran B. The different mechanisms of cancer drug resistance: a brief review. Adv Pharm Bull 2017;7:339-48.
5. Housman G, Byler S, Heerboth S, Lapinska K, Longacre M, et al. Drug resistance in cancer: an overview. Cancers (Basel) 2014;6:1769-92.
6. Wainwright EN, Scaffidi P. Epigenetics and cancer stem cells: unleashing, hijacking, and restricting cellular plasticity. trends cancer 2017;3:372-86.
7. Skrypek N, Goossens S, De Smedt E, Vandamme N, Berx G. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: epigenetic reprogramming driving cellular plasticity. Trends Genet 2017;33:943-59.
8. Nickel A, Stadler SC. Role of epigenetic mechanisms in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Transl Res 2015;165:126-42.
9. Lee JY, Kong G. Roles and epigenetic regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its transcription factors in cancer initiation and progression. Cell Mol Life Sci 2016;73:4643-60.
10. Serrano-Gomez SJ, Maziveyi M, Alahari SK. Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition through epigenetic and post-translational modifications. Mol Cancer 2016;15:18.
11. Ravasio R, Ceccacci E, Minucci S. Self-renewal of tumor cells: epigenetic determinants of the cancer stem cell phenotype. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2016;36:92-9.
12. He DX, Gu F, Gao F, Hao JJ, Gong D, et al. Genome-wide profiles of methylation, microRNAs, and gene expression in chemoresistant breast cancer. Sci Rep 2016;6:24706.
13. Shibue T, Weinberg RA. EMT, CSCs, and drug resistance: the mechanistic link and clinical implications. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2017;14:611-29.
14. Liu X, Fan D. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells: functional and mechanistic links. Curr Pharm Des 2015;21:1279-91.
15. Sin WC, Lim CL. Breast cancer stem cells-from origins to targeted therapy. Stem Cell Investig 2017;4:96.
16. Liu S, Cong Y, Wang D, Sun Y, Deng L, et al. Breast cancer stem cells transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states reflective of their normal counterparts. Stem Cell Reports 2014;2:78-91.
17. Chaffer CL, Marjanovic ND, Lee T, Bell G, Kleer CG, et al. Poised chromatin at the ZEB1 promoter enables breast cancer cell plasticity and enhances tumorigenicity. Cell 2013;154:61-74.
18. Nishi M, Sakai Y, Akutsu H, Nagashima Y, Quinn G, et al. Induction of cells with cancer stem cell properties from nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells by defined reprogramming factors. Oncogene 2014;33:643-52.
19. Liao WT, Ye YP, Deng YJ, Bian XW, Ding YQ. Metastatic cancer stem cells: from the concept to therapeutics. Am J Stem Cells 2014;3:46-62.
20. Calcagno AM, Salcido CD, Gillet JP, Wu CP, Fostel JM, et al. Prolonged drug selection of breast cancer cells and enrichment of cancer stem cell characteristics. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:1637-52.
21. Phi LTH, Sari IN, Yang YG, Lee SH, Jun N, et al. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in drug resistance and their therapeutic implications in cancer treatment. Stem Cells Int 2018;2018:5416923.
22. Sharma SV, Lee DY, Li B, Quinlan MP, Takahashi F, et al. A chromatin-mediated reversible drug-tolerant state in cancer cell subpopulations. Cell 2010;141:69-80.
23. Wilting RH, Dannenberg JH. Epigenetic mechanisms in tumorigenesis, tumor cell heterogeneity and drug resistance. Drug Resist Updat 2012;15:21-38.
24. Blick T, Hugo H, Widodo E, Waltham M, Pinto C, et al. Epithelial mesenchymal transition traits in human breast cancer cell lines parallel the CD44(hi/)CD24 (lo/-) stem cell phenotype in human breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2010;15:235-52.
25. Yenigun VB, Ozpolat B, Kose GT. Response of CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer stem/progenitor cells to tamoxifen and doxorubicininduced autophagy. Int J Mol Med 2013;31:1477-83.
26. Mani SA, Guo W, Liao MJ, Eaton EN, Ayyanan A, et al. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells. Cell 2008;133:704-15.
27. Lamouille S, Derynck R. Cell size and invasion in TGF-beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition is regulated by activation of the mTOR pathway. J Cell Biol 2007;178:437-51.
28. Sakaki-Yumoto M, Katsuno Y, Derynck R. TGF-beta family signaling in stem cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;1830:2280-96.
29. Vervoort SJ, Lourenco AR, van Boxtel R, Coffer PJ. SOX4 mediates TGF-beta-induced expression of mesenchymal markers during mammary cell epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PLoS One 2013;8:e53238.
30. Lee JJ, Loh K, Yap YS. PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in breast cancer. Cancer Biol Med 2015;12:342-54.
31. Dhasarathy A, Kajita M, Wade PA. The transcription factor snail mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transitions by repression of estrogen receptor-alpha. Mol Endocrinol 2007;21:2907-18.
32. Jang GB, Kim JY, Cho SD, Park KS, Jung JY, et al. Blockade of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling suppresses breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting CSC-like phenotype. Sci Rep 2015;5:12465.
33. Takahashi-Yanaga F, Kahn M. Targeting Wnt signaling: can we safely eradicate cancer stem cells? Clin Cancer Res 2010;16:3153-62.
35. Li J, Zhou BP. Activation of beta-catenin and Akt pathways by twist are critical for the maintenance of EMT associated cancer stem cell-like characters. BMC Cancer 2011;11:49.
36. Deshmukh A, Kumar S, Arfuso F, Newsholme P, Dharmarajan A. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) chemo-sensitizes cancer stem cells derived from human breast, prostate, and ovary tumor cell lines. Sci Rep 2017;7:2256.
37. Ponnusamy L, Mahalingaiah PKS, Singh KP. Treatment schedule and estrogen receptor-status influence acquisition of doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Sci 2017;104:424-33.
38. Katoh Y, Katoh M. Hedgehog target genes: mechanisms of carcinogenesis induced by aberrant hedgehog signaling activation. Curr Mol Med 2009;9:873-86.
39. Wils LJ, Bijlsma MF. Epigenetic regulation of the hedgehog and Wnt pathways in cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2018;121:23-44.
40. Wang Z, Li Y, Kong D, Sarkar FH. The role of Notch signaling pathway in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during development and tumor aggressiveness. Curr Drug Targets 2010;11:745-51.
41. Chen W, Qin Y, Liu S. Cytokines, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and chemoresistance. Clin Transl Med 2018;7:27.
42. Suman S, Das TP, Damodaran C. Silencing NOTCH signaling causes growth arrest in both breast cancer stem cells and breast cancer cells. Br J Cancer 2013;109:2587-96.
43. Dong C, Wu Y, Yao J, Wang Y, Yu Y, et al. G9a interacts with Snail and is critical for Snail-mediated E-cadherin repression in human breast cancer. J Clin Invest 2012;122:1469-86.
44. Kondo Y. Epigenetic cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications in human cancers. Yonsei Med J 2009;50:455-63.
45. Marmorstein R, Trievel RC. Histone modifying enzymes: structures, mechanisms, and specificities. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009;1789:58-68.
46. Nair SS, Kumar R. Chromatin remodeling in cancer: a gateway to regulate gene transcription. Mol Oncol 2012;6:611-9.
48. Chen D, Wu M, Li Y, Chang I, Yuan Q, et al. Targeting BMI1(+) cancer stem cells overcomes chemoresistance and inhibits metastases in squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Stem Cell 2017;20:621-34 e6.
49. Cao R, Wang L, Wang H, Xia L, Erdjument-Bromage H, et al. Role of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation in polycomb-group silencing. Science (New York, NY) 2002;298:1039-43.
50. Santos-Rosa H, Caldas C. Chromatin modifier enzymes, the histone code and cancer. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 2005;41:2381-402.
51. Vaissiere T, Sawan C, Herceg Z. Epigenetic interplay between histone modifications and DNA methylation in gene silencing. Mutat Res 2008;659:40-8.
52. Crea F, Danesi R, Farrar WL. Cancer stem cell epigenetics and chemoresistance. Epigenomics 2009;1:63-79.
53. Chekhun VF, Lukyanova NY, Kovalchuk O, Tryndyak VP, Pogribny IP. Epigenetic profiling of multidrug-resistant human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells reveals novel hyper- and hypomethylated targets. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6:1089-98.
54. Teodoridis JM, Strathdee G, Plumb JA, Brown R. CpG-island methylation and epigenetic control of resistance to chemotherapy. Biochem Soc Trans 2004;32:916-7.
55. Seligson DB, Horvath S, McBrian MA, Mah V, Yu H, et al. Global levels of histone modifications predict prognosis in different cancers. Am J Pathol 2009;174:1619-28.
56. Patra SK, Deb M, Patra A. Molecular marks for epigenetic identification of developmental and cancer stem cells. Clin Epigenetics 2011;2:27-53.
57. Poli V, Fagnocchi L, Zippo A. Tumorigenic cell reprogramming and cancer plasticity: interplay between signaling, microenvironment, and epigenetics. Stem Cells Int 2018;2018:4598195.
58. Menendez JA, Corominas-Faja B, Cuyas E, Garcia MG, Fernandez-Arroyo S, et al. Oncometabolic nuclear reprogramming of cancer stemness. Stem Cell Reports 2016;6:273-83.
59. Aubele M, Schmitt M, Napieralski R, Paepke S, Ettl J, et al. The predictive value of PITX2 DNA methylation for high-risk breast cancer therapy: current guidelines, medical needs, and challenges. Dis Markers 2017;2017:4934608.
60. Nass SJ, Herman JG, Gabrielson E, Iversen PW, Parl FF, et al. Aberrant methylation of the estrogen receptor and E-cadherin 5’ CpG islands increases with malignant progression in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 2000;60:4346-8.
61. Gottesman MM, Fojo T, Bates SE. Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:48-58.
62. McDonald OG, Wu H, Timp W, Doi A, Feinberg AP. Genome-scale epigenetic reprogramming during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2011;18:867-74.
63. Ke XS, Qu Y, Cheng Y, Li WC, Rotter V, et al. Global profiling of histone and DNA methylation reveals epigenetic-based regulation of gene expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cells. BMC Genomics 2010;11:669.
64. Lombaerts M, van Wezel T, Philippo K, Dierssen JW, Zimmerman RM, et al. E-cadherin transcriptional downregulation by promoter methylation but not mutation is related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer 2006;94:661-71.
65. Xiao XS, Cai MY, Chen JW, Guan XY, Kung HF, et al. High expression of p300 in human breast cancer correlates with tumor recurrence and predicts adverse prognosis. Chin J Cancer Res 2011;23:201-7.
66. Liao ZW, Zhao L, Cai MY, Xi M, He LR, et al. P300 promotes migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. Oncol Lett 2017;13:763-9.
67. Li QQ, Xu JD, Wang WJ, Cao XX, Chen Q, et al. Twist1-mediated adriamycin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition relates to multidrug resistance and invasive potential in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:2657-65.
68. Zhang X, Zhang Z, Zhang Q, Zhang Q, Sun P, et al. ZEB1 confers chemotherapeutic resistance to breast cancer by activating ATM. Cell Death Dis 2018;9:57.
69. Fu J, Qin L, He T, Qin J, Hong J, et al. The TWIST/Mi2/NuRD protein complex and its essential role in cancer metastasis. Cell Res 2011;21:275-89.
70. Peng L, Yuan Z, Ling H, Fukasawa K, Robertson K, et al. SIRT1 deacetylates the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein and alters its activities. Mol Cell Biol 2011;31:4720-34.
71. Pourakbar S, Pluard TJ, Accurso AD, Farassati F. Ezh2, a novel target in detection and therapy of breast cancer. Onco Targets Ther 2017;10:2685-7.
72. Lee JY, Park MK, Park JH, Lee HJ, Shin DH, et al. Loss of the polycomb protein Mel-18 enhances the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression through the downregulation of miR-205 in breast cancer. Oncogene 2014;33:1325-35.
73. Yang F, Sun L, Li Q, Han X, Lei L, et al. SET8 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and confers TWIST dual transcriptional activities. EMBO J 2012;31:110-23.
74. Cai J, Tian AX, Wang QS, Kong PZ, Du X, et al. FOXF2 suppresses the FOXC2-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and multidrug resistance of basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Lett 2015;367:129-37.
75. Fang X, Cai Y, Liu J, Wang Z, Wu Q, et al. Twist2 contributes to breast cancer progression by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like cell self-renewal. Oncogene 2011;30:4707-20.
76. Siddique HR, Saleem M. Role of BMI1, a stem cell factor, in cancer recurrence and chemoresistance: preclinical and clinical evidences. Stem Cells 2012;30:372-8.
77. Paranjape AN, Balaji SA, Mandal T, Krushik EV, Nagaraj P, et al. Bmi1 regulates self-renewal and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells through Nanog. BMC Cancer 2014;14:785.
78. Ponnusamy L, Mahalingaiah PKS, Chang YW, Singh KP. Reversal of epigenetic aberrations associated with the acquisition of doxorubicin resistance restores drug sensitivity in breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Sci 2018;123:56-69.
80. Suraweera A, O’Byrne KJ, Richard DJ. Combination therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for the treatment of cancer: achieving the full therapeutic potential of HDACi. Front Oncol 2018;8:92.
81. Copeland RA, Olhava EJ, Scott MP. Targeting epigenetic enzymes for drug discovery. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2010;14:505-10.
82. Gomez-Casal R, Bhattacharya C, Epperly MW, Basse PH, Wang H, et al. The HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib radiosensitizes human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Cancers (Basel) 2015;7:876-907.