Sandi Alexander Kwee, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, Clinical and Translational Sciences Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, and John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA.
Special Issue Introduction
Immune checkpoint inhibitor agents are now globally available for use in first-line or second-line treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, objective responses to these agents occur in only a small fraction of patients, and a reliable tissue, serum, or imaging biomarker for predicting therapeutic response has yet to be identified. The pathways and mechanisms underlying the development of immunotherapy resistance are also poorly understood, and clinically, there still exists a need to further define the role of biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors used alone or in combination with other therapies including liver-directed therapies. For this Special Issue on immunotherapy and immunotherapy biomarkers in HCC, we include original articles, perspectives, and reviews of clinical and pre-clinical research that support the goal of improving HCC immunotherapy effectiveness and precision.
15 Nov 2022