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Energy Mater 2023;3:[Accepted]. 10.20517/energymater.2023.68

Porous Nb4W7O31 microspheres with a mixed crystal structure for high-performance Li+ storage

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Xingxing Jin, Qiang Yuan, Xiaolin Sun, Xuehua Liu, Jianfei Wu, Chunfu Lin
Correspondence Address: Prof./Dr. Chunfu Lin, Institute of Materials for Energy and Environment, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, China. E-mail:; ORCID: 0000-0003-0251-7938. Prof./Dr. Jianfei Wu, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101, China; Shandong Energy Institute, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101, China; Qingdao New Energy Shandong Laboratory, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101, China. Email:; ORCID: 0000-0002-1420-3947
Received: 1 Sep 2023 | Revised: 29 Oct 2023 | Accepted: 13 Nov 2023

© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


Niobium–tungsten oxides with tungsten bronze and confined ReO3 crystal structures are prospective anode candidates for lithium-ion batteries since the multi-electron transfer per niobium/tungsten offers large specific capacities. To combine the merits of the two structures, porous Nb4W7O31 microspheres constructed by nanorods are synthesized based on a facile solvothermal method. This new material contains different tungsten bronze structures and 4×4 ReO3-type blocks confined by tungsten bronze matrices, generating plenty of pentagonal and quadrangular tunnels for Li+ storage, as confirmed by spherical-aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Such structural mixing enables three-dimensionally uniform and small lattice expansion/shrinkage during lithiation/delithiation, leading to good structural and cyclic stability (95.2% capacity retention over 1500 cycles at 10C). The large interlayer spacing (~3.95 Å) coupled with the abundant pentagonal/quadrangular tunnels results in ultra-high Li+ diffusion coefficients (1.24×10–11 cm2 s–1 during lithiation and 1.09×10–10 cm2 s–1 during delithiation) and high rate capability (10C vs. 0.1C capacity retention percentage of 47.6%). Nb4W7O31 further exhibits a large reversible capacity (252 mAh g–1 at 0.1C), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (88.4% at 0.1C) and safe operating potential (~1.66 V vs. Li/Li+). This comprehensive study demonstrates that the porous Nb4W7O31 microspheres are a very promising anode material for future use in high-performance Li+ storage.


Porous Nb4W7O31 microsphere; tungsten bronze crystal structure, confined ReO3 crystal structure, in-situ XRD, Li+-storage mechanism

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Jin x, Yuan Q, Sun X, Liu X, Wu J, Lin C. Porous Nb4W7O31 microspheres with a mixed crystal structure for high-performance Li+ storage. Energy Mater 2023;3:[Accept].

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