1. Yahagi K, Kolodgie FD, Lutter C, Mori H, Romero ME, Finn AV, Virmani R. Pathology of human coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2017;37:191-204.

2. Heier M, Margeirsdottir HD, Gaarder M, Stensæth KH, Brunborg C, Torjesen PA, Seljeflot I, Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jørgensen K. Soluble RAGE and atherosclerosis in youth with type 1 diabetes: a 5-year follow-up study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2015;14:126.

3. Hunt KJ, Baker NL, Cleary PA, Klein R, Virella G, Lopes-Virella MF; DCCT/EDIC Group of investigators. Longitudinal association between endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and clotting biomarkers with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes: an evaluation of the DCCT/EDIC cohort. Diabetes Care 2015;38:1281-9.

4. Yoon HJ, Lee YH, Kim SR, Rim TH, Lee EY, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee HC, Lee BW. Glycated albumin and the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2015;14:53.

5. Heier M, Margeirsdottir HD, Brunborg C, Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Seljeflot I. Inflammation in childhood type 1 diabetes; influence of glycemic control. Atherosclerosis 2015;238:33-7.

6. Zeadin MG, Petlura CI, Werstuck GH. Molecular mechanisms linking diabetes to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Can J Diabetes 2013;37:345-50.

7. Shah MS, Brownlee M. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disorders in diabetes. Circ Res 2016;118:1808-29.

8. Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome update. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2016;26:364-73.

9. Tune JD, Goodwill AG, Sassoon DJ, Mather KJ. Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome. Transl Res 2017;183:57-70.

10. Stout RW. Hyperinsulinemia and atherosclerosis. Diabetes 1996;45:S45-6.

11. Gwinup G, Elias AN. Hypothesis: insulin is responsible for the vascular complications of diabetes. Med Hypotheses 1991;34:1-6.

12. Bansilal S, Farkouh ME, Fuster V. Role of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in the development of atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:B6-14.

13. Stout RW. Insulin as a mitogenic factor: role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 1991;90:S62-5.

14. Escudero CA, Herlitz K, Troncoso F, Guevara K, Acurio J, Aguayo C, Godoy AS, González M. Pro-angiogenic role of insulin: from physiology to pathology. Front Physiol 2017;8:204.

15. Rask-Madsen C, Buonomo E, Li Q, Park K, Clermont AC, Yerokun O, Rekhter M, King GL. Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012;32:1124-31.

16. Jarrett RJ. Is insulin atherogenic? Diabetologia 1988;31:71-5.

17. Durrington PN. Is insulin atherogenic? Diabet Med 1992;9:597-600.

18. Radermecker RP, Renard E, Scheen AJ. Circulating insulin antibodies: influence of continuous subcutaneous or intraperitoneal insulin infusion, and impact on glucose control. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2009;25:491-501.

19. American Diabetes Association. (2) Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2015;38 Suppl:S8-16.

20. Sobenin IA, Galitsyna EV, Grechko AV, Orekhov AN. Small dense and desialylated low density lipoprotein in diabetic patients. Vessel Plus 2017;1:29-37.

21. Tertov VV, Orekhov AN, Ryong LH, Smirnov VN. Intracellular cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by enhanced proliferative activity of human aortic intimal cells. Tissue Cell 1988;20:849-54.

22. Adams DO. Macrophages. In: Jakoby WB, Pastan JA, editors. Methods in Enzymology. New York: Academic Press; 1979. pp. 494-506.

23. Slavina ES, Madanat AYa, Pankov YuA, Syrkin AL, Tertov VV, Orekhov AN. Diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 1987;317:836.

24. Sobenin IA, Tertov VV, Koschinsky T, Bünting CE, Slavina ES, Dedov II, Orekhov AN. Modified low density lipoprotein from diabetic patients causes cholesterol accumulation in human intimal aortic cells. Atherosclerosis 1993;100:41-54.

25. Sobenin IA, Tertov VV, Orekhov AN. Atherogenic modified LDL in diabetes. Diabetes 1996;45:S35-9.

26. Lyons TJ, Klein RL, Baynes JW, Stevenson HC, Lopes-Virella MF. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis in human monocyte-derived macrophages by low-density lipoproteins from type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: the influence of non-enzymatic glycosylation of low-density lipoproteins. Diabetologia 1987;30:916-23.

27. Lopes-Virella MF, Virella G. Pathogenic role of modified LDL antibodies and immune complexes in atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb 2013;20:743-54.

28. Stout RW. Insulin and atheroma. 20-yr perspective. Diabetes Care 1990;13:631-54.

29. Savage PJ, Saad MF. Insulin and atherosclerosis: villain, accomplice, or innocent bystander? Br Heart J 1993;69:473-5.

30. Fontbonne AM, Eschwège EM. Insulin and cardiovascular disease. Paris prospective study. Diabetes Care 1991;14:461-9.

31. Yosefy C. Hyperglycaemia and its relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: has it been resolved? Acta Diabetol 2003;40:S380-8.

32. Stout RW. Insulin stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by arterial tissue. Lancet 1970;1:248.

33. Wahlqvist ML, Stout RW. The effect of insulin on the incorporation of sodium (1-14C)-acetate into the lipids of the rat aorta. Diabetologia 1972;8:305-6.

34. Stout RW. Diabetes and atherosclerosis--the role of insulin. Diabetologia 1979;16:141-50.

35. Sato Y, Shiraishi S, Oshida Y, Ishiguro T, Sakamoto N. Experimental atherosclerosis-like lesions induced by hyperinsulinism in Wistar rats. Diabetes 1989;38:91-6.

36. Abe H, Bandai A, Makuuchi M, Idezuki Y, Nozawa M, Oka T, Osuga J, Watanabe Y, Inaba T, Yamada N. Hyperinsulinaemia accelerates accumulation of cholesterol ester in aorta of rats with transplanted pancreas. Diabetologia 1996;39:1276-83.

37. Chattopadhyay DP, Martin JM. Effect of insulin on the in vitro synthesis of sterol and fatty acid by aorta and liver from diabetic rats. J Atheroscler Res 1969;10:131-4.

38. Chobanian AV, Gerritsen GC, Brecher PI, McCombs L. Aortic glucose metabolism in the diabetic Chinese hamster. Diabetologia 1974;10 Suppl:589-93.

39. Christensen S, Jensen J. Uptake of labelled cholesterol from plasma by aortic intima-media in control and insulin-injected rabbits. J Atheroscler Res 1965;5:258-9.

40. Capron L, Jarnet J. Effects of injury and insulin on lipid synthesis from glucose by the rat thoracic aorta. Arterioscler Thromb 1991;11:91-6.

41. Pfeifle B, Ditschuneit HH, Ditschuneit H. Insulin as a cellular growth regulator of rat arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. Horm Metab Res 1980;12:381-5.

42. King GL, Buzney SM, Kahn CR, Hetu N, Buchwald S, Macdonald SG, Rand LI. Differential responsiveness to insulin of endothelial and support cells from micro- and macrovessels. J Clin Invest 1983;71:974-9.

43. Ledet T. Growth hormone stimulating the growth of arterial medial cells in vitro. Absence of effect of insulin. Diabetes 1976;25:1011-7.

44. Baandrup U, Ledet T, Rasch R. Experimental diabetic cardiopathy preventable by insulin treatment. Lab Invest 1981;45:169-73.

45. Ridray S, Ktorza A, Picon L, Capron L. In vivo effect of insulin on the acute proliferative response of the rat aorta to injury. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:633-8.

46. Joseph JJ, Donner TW. Long-term insulin glargine therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a focus on cardiovascular outcomes. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2015;11:107-16.

47. Nathan DM, Genuth S, Lachin J, Cleary P, Crofford O, Davis M, Rand L, Siebert C; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977-86.

48. Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2643-53.

49. Cleary PA, Orchard TJ, Genuth S, Wong ND, Detrano R, Backlund JY, Zinman B, Jacobson A, Sun W, Lachin JM, Nathan DM; DCCT/EDIC Research Group. The effect of intensive glycemic treatment on coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetic participants of the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. Diabetes 2006;55:3556-65.

50. Polak JF, Backlund JY, Cleary PA, Harrington AP, O'Leary DH, Lachin JM, Nathan DM; DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness during 12 years in the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. Diabetes 2011;60:607-13.

51. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998;352:837-53.

52. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1577-89.

53. Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Bigger JT, Buse JB, Cushman WC, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Grimm RH Jr, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Friedewald WT; Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545-59.

54. Advance Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, Woodward M, Marre M, Cooper M, Glasziou P, Grobbee D, Hamet P, Harrap S, Heller S, Liu L, Mancia G, Mogensen CE, Pan C, Poulter N, Rodgers A, Williams B, Bompoint S, de Galan BE, Joshi R, Travert F. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2560-72.

55. Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, Reda D, Emanuele N, Reaven PD, Zieve FJ, Marks J, Davis SN, Hayward R, Warren SR, Goldman S, McCarren M, Vitek ME, Henderson WG, Huang GD; VADT Investigators. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009;360:129-39.

56. Riddle MC. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Circulation 2010;122:844-6.

57. Fang HJ, Zhou YH, Tian YJ, Du HY, Sun YX, Zhong LY. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of data from 58,160 patients in 13 randomized controlled trials. Int J Cardiol 2016;218:50-8.

Vessel Plus
ISSN 2574-1209 (Online)
Follow Us


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: