1. Loomba R, Sanyal AJ. The global NAFLD epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;10:686-90.

2. Adams LA, Lindor KD. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ann Epidemiol 2007;17:863-9.

3. Younossi ZM, Koenig AB, Abdelatif D, Fazel Y, Henry L, et al. Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes. Hepatology 2016;64:73-84.

4. Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, Behling C, Contos MJ, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2005;41:1313-21.

5. Page JM, Harrison SA. NASH and HCC. Clin Liver Dis 2009;13:631-47.

6. Sanyal AJ; American Gastroenterological Association. AGA technical review on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2002;123:1705-25.

7. Estes C, Razavi H, Loomba R, Younossi Z, Sanyal AJ. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease. Hepatology 2018;67:123-33.

8. Allen AM, Van Houten HK, Sangaralingham LR, Talwalkar JA, McCoy RG. Healthcare cost and utilization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: real-world data from a large U.S. claims database. Hepatology 2018;68:2230-8.

9. Younossi ZM, Henry L, Bush H, Mishra A. Clinical and economic burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Liver Dis 2018;22:1-10.

10. Younossi ZM, Zheng L, Stepanova M, Henry L, Venkatesan C, et al. Trends in outpatient resource utilizations and outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2015;49:222-7.

11. Stine JG, Wentworth BJ, Zimmet A, Rinella ME, Loomba R, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis without cirrhosis compared to other liver diseases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018;48:696-703.

12. Piscaglia F, Svegliati-Baroni G, Barchetti A, Pecorelli A, Marinelli S, et al. Clinical patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a multicenter prospective study. Hepatology 2016;63:827-38.

13. Lee TY, Wu JC, Yu SH, Lin JT, Wu MS, et al. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in different risk stratifications of clinically noncirrhotic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Cancer 2017;141:1307-14.

14. Kaplan DE, Serper MA, Mehta R, Fox R, John B, et al. Effects of hypercholesterolemia and statin exposure on survival in a large national cohort of patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 2019;156:1693-706.e12.

15. Thrift AP, Natarajan Y, Liu Y, El-Serag HB. Statin use after diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with decreased mortality. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;17:2117-25.e3.

16. Simon TG, Ma Y, Ludvigsson JF, Chong DQ, Giovannucci EL, et al. Association between aspirin use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. JAMA Oncol 2018;4:1683-90.

17. Simon TG, Duberg AS, Aleman S, Hagstrom H, Nguyen LH, et al. Lipophilic statins and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and death in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: results from a nationwide Swedish population. Ann Intern Med 2019;171:318-27.

18. Anstee QM, Reeves HL, Kotsiliti E, Govaere O, Heikenwalder M. From NASH to HCC: current concepts and future challenges. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;16:411-28.

19. Singal AG, El-Serag HB. Hepatocellular carcinoma from epidemiology to prevention: translating knowledge into practice. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015;13:2140-51.

20. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30.

21. Welzel TM, Graubard BI, Quraishi S, Zeuzem S, Davila JA, et al. Population-attributable fractions of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108:1314-21.

22. Kanwal F, Kramer JR, Mapakshi S, Natarajan Y, Chayanupatkul M, et al. Risk of hepatocellular cancer in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2018;155:1828-37.e2.

23. Mittal S, Sada YH, El-Serag HB, Kanwal F, Duan Z, et al. Temporal trends of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the veteran affairs population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015;13:594-601.e1.

24. Ioannou GN, Green P, Kerr KF, Berry K. Models estimating risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with alcohol or NAFLD-related cirrhosis for risk stratification. J Hepatol 2019;71:523-33.

25. Younossi Z, Stepanova M, Ong JP, Jacobson IM, Bugianesi E, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the fastest growing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant candidates. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;17:748-55.e3.

26. Wong RJ, Cheung R, Ahmed A. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the most rapidly growing indication for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the U.S. Hepatology 2014;59:2188-95.

27. Wong RJ, Aguilar M, Cheung R, Perumpail RB, Harrison SA, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. Gastroenterology 2015;148:547-55.

28. Petrick JL, Braunlin M, Laversanne M, Valery PC, Bray F, et al. International trends in liver cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1978-2007. Int J Cancer 2016;139:1534-45.

29. Kawamura Y, Arase Y, Ikeda K, Seko Y, Imai N, et al. Large-scale long-term follow-up study of Japanese patients with non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease for the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 2012;107:253-61.

30. Alexander M, Loomis AK, van der Lei J, Duarte-Salles T, Prieto-Alhambra D, et al. Risks and clinical predictors of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma diagnoses in adults with diagnosed NAFLD: real-world study of 18 million patients in four European cohorts. BMC Med 2019;17:95.

31. Haldar D, Kern B, Hodson J, Armstrong MJ, Adam R, et al. Outcomes of liver transplantation for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a European Liver Transplant Registry study. J Hepatol 2019;71:313-22.

32. Fan JG, Kim SU, Wong VW. New trends on obesity and NAFLD in Asia. J Hepatol 2017;67:862-73.

33. Wong MCS, Huang JLW, George J, Huang J, Leung C, et al. The changing epidemiology of liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;16:57-73.

34. Cho EJ, Kwack MS, Jang ES, You SJ, Lee JH, et al. Relative etiological role of prior hepatitis B virus infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma in a hepatitis B-endemic area. Digestion 2011;84:17-22.

35. Hagström H, Nasr P, Ekstedt M, Hammar U, Stål P, et al. Risk for development of severe liver disease in lean patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a long-term follow-up study. Hepatol Commun 2018;2:48-57.

36. Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, Nuremberg P, Horton JD, et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology 2004;40:1387-95.

37. Caldwell SH, Harris DM, Patrie JT, Hespenheide EE. Is NASH underdiagnosed among African Americans? Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:1496-500.

38. Browning JD, Kumar KS, Saboorian MH, Thiele DL. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of cryptogenic cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:292-8.

39. Schwimmer JB, Celedon MA, Lavine JE, Salem R, Campbell N, et al. Heritability of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2009;136:1585-92.

40. Loomba R, Schork N, Chen CH, Bettencourt R, Bhatt A, et al. Heritability of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis based on a prospective twin study. Gastroenterology 2015;149:1784-93.

41. Romeo S, Kozlitina J, Xing C, Pertsemlidis A, Cox D, et al. Genetic variation in PNPLA3 confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Genet 2008;40:1461-5.

42. Dongiovanni P, Donati B, Fares R, Lombardi R, Mancina RM, et al. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism and progressive liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:6969-78.

43. Smagris E, BasuRay S, Li J, Huang Y, Lai KM, et al. Pnpla3I148M knockin mice accumulate PNPLA3 on lipid droplets and develop hepatic steatosis. Hepatology 2015;61:108-18.

44. Sookoian S, Pirola CJ. Meta-analysis of the influence of I148M variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) on the susceptibility and histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2011;53:1883-94.

45. Liu YL, Patman GL, Leathart JB, Piguet AC, Burt AD, et al. Carriage of the PNPLA3 rs738409 C >G polymorphism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 2014;61:75-81.

46. Kozlitina J, Smagris E, Stender S, Nordestgaard BG, Zhou HH, et al. Exome-wide association study identifies a TM6SF2 variant that confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Genet 2014;46:352-6.

47. Falleti E, Cussigh A, Cmet S, Fabris C, Toniutto P. PNPLA3 rs738409 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 variants increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic cirrhosis. Dig Liver Dis 2016;48:69-75.

48. Mancina RM, Dongiovanni P, Petta S, Pingitore P, Meroni M, et al. The MBOAT7-TMC4 variant rs641738 increases risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in individuals of european descent. Gastroenterology 2016;150:1219-30.e6.

49. Luukkonen PK, Zhou Y, Hyötyläinen T, Leivonen M, Arola J, et al. The MBOAT7 variant rs641738 alters hepatic phosphatidylinositols and increases severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. J Hepatol 2016;65:1263-5.

50. Donati B, Dongiovanni P, Romeo S, Meroni M, McCain M, et al. MBOAT7 rs641738 variant and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic individuals. Sci Rep 2017;7:4492.

51. Pelusi S, Baselli G, Pietrelli A, Dongiovanni P, Donati B, et al. Rare pathogenic variants predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sci Rep 2019;9:3682.

52. El-Serag HB, Lau M, Eschbach K, Davila J, Goodwin J. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hispanics in the United States. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1983-9.

53. Rich NE, Hester C, Odewole M, Murphy CC, Parikh ND, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;17:551-9.e1.

54. Garske KM, Pan DZ, Miao Z, Bhagat YV, Comenho C, et al. Reverse gene-environment interaction approach to identify variants influencing body-mass index in humans. Nat Metab 2019;1:630-42.

55. Benhammou JN, Ko A, Alvarez M, Kaikkonen MU, Rankin C, et al. Novel lipid long intervening noncoding RNA, oligodendrocyte maturation-associated long intergenic noncoding RNA, regulates the liver steatosis gene stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase as an enhancer RNA. Hepatol Commun 2019;3:1356-72.

56. Villanueva A, Portela A, Sayols S, Battiston C, Hoshida Y, et al. DNA methylation-based prognosis and epidrivers in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2015;61:1945-56.

57. Fei Q, Shang K, Zhang J, Chuai S, Kong D, et al. Histone methyltransferase SETDB1 regulates liver cancer cell growth through methylation of p53. Nat Commun 2015;6:8651.

58. Xu RH, Wei W, Krawczyk M, Wang W, Luo H, et al. Circulating tumour DNA methylation markers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Mater 2017;16:1155-61.

59. Ng CKY, Di Costanzo GG, Terracciano LM, Piscuoglio S. Circulating cell-free DNA in hepatocellular carcinoma: current insights and outlook. Front Med (Lausanne) 2018;5:78.

60. El-Serag HB, Tran T, Everhart JE. Diabetes increases the risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;126:460-8.

61. Lai SW, Chen PC, Liao KF, Muo CH, Lin CC, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in diabetic patients and risk reduction associated with anti-diabetic therapy: a population-based cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol 2012;107:46-52.

62. Chen HF, Chen P, Li CY. Risk of malignant neoplasms of liver and biliary tract in diabetic patients with different age and sex stratifications. Hepatology 2010;52:155-63.

63. Simon TG, King LY, Chong DQ, Nguyen LH, Ma Y, et al. Diabetes, metabolic comorbidities, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: results from two prospective cohort studies. Hepatology 2018;67:1797-806.

64. Cancer Prevention Study II. The American Cancer Society Prospective Study. Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co 1992;73:21-9.

65. Karagozian R, Derdak Z, Baffy G. Obesity-associated mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis. Metabolism 2014;63:607-17.

66. Ioannou GN, Weiss NS, Boyko EJ, Kowdley KV, Kahn SE, et al. Is central obesity associated with cirrhosis-related death or hospitalization? A population-based, cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:67-74.

67. Schlesinger S, Aleksandrova K, Pischon T, Fedirko V, Jenab M, et al. Abdominal obesity, weight gain during adulthood and risk of liver and biliary tract cancer in a European cohort. Int J Cancer 2013;132:645-57.

68. Pang Q, Zhang JY, Song SD, Qu K, Xu XS, et al. Central obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk after adjusting for body mass index. World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:1650-62.

69. Consultation WE. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004;363:157-63.

70. Welzel TM, Graubard BI, Zeuzem S, El-Serag HB, Davila JA, et al. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of primary liver cancer in the United States: a study in the SEER-Medicare database. Hepatology 2011;54:463-71.

71. Borena W, Strohmaier S, Lukanova A, Bjørge T, Lindkvist B, et al. Metabolic risk factors and primary liver cancer in a prospective study of 578,700 adults. Int J Cancer 2012;131:193-200.

72. Chiang CH, Lee LT, Hung SH, Lin WY, Hung HF, et al. Opposite association between diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hepatocellular carcinoma mortality in the middle-aged and elderly. Hepatology 2014;59:2207-15.

73. Chalasani N. Statins and hepatotoxicity: focus on patients with fatty liver. Hepatology 2005;41:690-5.

74. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Diehl AM, Brunt EM, et al. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, and American College of Gastroenterology. Gastroenterology 2012;142:1592-609.

75. Bays H, Cohen DE, Chalasani N, Harrison SA; The national lipid association’s Statin safety task F. An assessment by the Statin Liver Safety Task Force: 2014 update. J Clin Lipidol 2014;8:S47-57.

76. Puri P, Wiest MM, Cheung O, Mirshahi F, Sargeant C, et al. The plasma lipidomic signature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2009;50:1827-38.

77. Chiappini F, Coilly A, Kadar H, Gual P, Tran A, et al. Metabolism dysregulation induces a specific lipid signature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in patients. Sci Rep 2017;7:46658.

78. Walle P, Takkunen M, Männistö V, Vaittinen M, Lankinen M, et al. Fatty acid metabolism is altered in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis independent of obesity. Metabolism 2016;65:655-66.

79. Safadi R, Konikoff FM, Mahamid M, Zelber-Sagi S, Halpern M, et al. The fatty acid-bile acid conjugate Aramchol reduces liver fat content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;12:2085-91.e1.

80. Ajmera VH, Cachay E, Ramers C, Vodkin I, Bassirian S, et al. MRI assessment of treatment response in HIV-associated NAFLD: a randomized trial of a stearoyl-coenzyme-A-desaturase-1 inhibitor (ARRIVE Trial). Hepatology 2019;70:1531-45.

81. Kim G, Jang SY, Nam CM, Kang ES. Statin use and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients at high risk: a nationwide nested case-control study. J Hepatol 2018;68:476-84.

82. Friedman GD, Achacoso N, Fireman B, Habel LA. Statins and reduced risk of liver cancer: evidence for confounding. J Natl Cancer Inst 2016;108.

83. Yi C, Song Z, Wan M, Chen Y, Cheng X. Statins intake and risk of liver cancer: a dose-response meta analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96:e7435.

84. Shi M, Zheng H, Nie B, Gong W, Cui X. Statin use and risk of liver cancer: an update meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005399.

85. Ogura S, Yoshida Y, Kurahashi T, Egawa M, Furuta K, et al. Targeting the mevalonate pathway is a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit oncogenic FoxM1 transcription factor in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget 2018;9:21022-35.

86. Gruenbacher G, Thurnher M. Mevalonate metabolism governs cancer immune surveillance. Oncoimmunology 2017;6:e1342917.

87. Cuzick J, Otto F, Baron JA, Brown PH, Burn J, et al. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention: an international consensus statement. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:501-7.

88. Bosetti C, Gallus S, La Vecchia C. Aspirin and cancer risk: a summary review to 2007. Recent Results Cancer Res 2009;181:231-51.

89. Leng J, Han C, Demetris AJ, Michalopoulos GK, Wu T. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth through Akt activation: evidence for Akt inhibition in celecoxib-induced apoptosis. Hepatology 2003;38:756-68.

90. Sahasrabuddhe VV, Gunja MZ, Graubard BI, Trabert B, Schwartz LM, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, chronic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104:1808-14.

91. Schatzkin A, Subar AF, Thompson FE, Harlan LC, Tangrea J, et al. Design and serendipity in establishing a large cohort with wide dietary intake distributions : the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:1119-25.

92. Petrick JL, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Chan AT, Alavanja MC, Beane-Freeman LE, et al. NSAID use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the liver cancer pooling project. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2015;8:1156-62.

93. Carpino G, Del Ben M, Pastori D, Carnevale R, Baratta F, et al. Increased liver localization of lipopolysaccharides in human and experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2019. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/hep.31056

94. Paik JM, Henry L, De Avila L, Younossi E, Racila A, et al. Mortality related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing in the United States. Hepatol Commun 2019;3:1459-71.

95. Gill SR, Pop M, Deboy RT, Eckburg PB, Turnbaugh PJ, et al. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Science 2006;312:1355-9.

96. Miele L, Valenza V, La Torre G, Montalto M, Cammarota G, et al. Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2009;49:1877-87.

97. Volynets V, Küper MA, Strahl S, Maier IB, Spruss A, et al. Nutrition, intestinal permeability, and blood ethanol levels are altered in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dig Dis Sci 2012;57:1932-41.

98. Noverr MC, Huffnagle GB. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut? Trends Microbiol 2004;12:562-8.

99. Buzzetti E, Pinzani M, Tsochatzis EA. The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metabolism 2016;65:1038-48.

100. Mouzaki M, Wang AY, Bandsma R, Comelli EM, Arendt BM, et al. Bile acids and dysbiosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PLoS One 2016;11:e0151829.

101. Henao-Mejia J, Elinav E, Jin C, Hao L, Mehal WZ, et al. Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity. Nature 2012;482:179-85.

102. Boursier J, Diehl AM. Implication of gut microbiota in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PLoS Pathog 2015;11:e1004559.

103. Zhu L, Baker SS, Gill C, Liu W, Alkhouri R, et al. Characterization of gut microbiomes in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients: a connection between endogenous alcohol and NASH. Hepatology 2013;57:601-9.

104. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444:1022-3.

105. Boursier J, Mueller O, Barret M, Machado M, Fizanne L, et al. The severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota. Hepatology 2016;63:764-75.

106. Loomba R, Seguritan V, Li W, Long T, Klitgord N, et al. Gut microbiome-based metagenomic signature for non-invasive detection of advanced fibrosis in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cell Metab 2019;30:607.

107. Grąt M, Wronka KM, Krasnodębski M, Masior Ł, Lewandowski Z, et al. Profile of gut microbiota associated with the presence of hepatocellular cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis. Transplant Proc 2016;48:1687-91.

108. Chassaing B, Etienne-Mesmin L, Gewirtz AT. Microbiota-liver axis in hepatic disease. Hepatology 2014;59:328-39.

109. Ponziani FR, Bhoori S, Castelli C, Putignani L, Rivoltini L, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with gut microbiota profile and inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2019;69:107-20.

110. Roberts MS, Magnusson BM, Burczynski FJ, Weiss M. Enterohepatic circulation: physiological, pharmacokinetic and clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002;41:751-90.

111. Jacobs JP, Dong TS, Agopian V, Lagishetty V, Sundaram V, et al. Microbiome and bile acid profiles in duodenal aspirates from patients with liver cirrhosis: the Microbiome, Microbial Markers and Liver Disease Study. Hepatol Res 2018;48:1108-17.

112. Chung GE, Yoon JH, Lee JH, Kim HY, Myung SJ, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid-induced inhibition of DLC1 protein degradation leads to suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth. Oncol Rep 2011;25:1739-46.

113. Liu H, Xu HW, Zhang YZ, Huang Y, Han GQ, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in mice. World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:10367-74.

114. Zhu L, Shan LJ, Liu YJ, Chen D, Xiao XG, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. J Dig Dis 2014;15:684-93.

115. Li J, Sung CY, Lee N, Ni Y, Pihlajamäki J, et al. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:E1306-15.

116. Zhang HL, Yu LX, Yang W, Tang L, Lin Y, et al. Profound impact of gut homeostasis on chemically-induced pro-tumorigenic inflammation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. J Hepatol 2012;57:803-12.

117. Yoshimoto S, Loo TM, Atarashi K, Kanda H, Sato S, et al. Obesity-induced gut microbial metabolite promotes liver cancer through senescence secretome. Nature 2013;499:97-101.

118. Tokushige K, Hashimoto E, Horie Y, Taniai M, Higuchi S. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Japanese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and chronic liver disease of unknown etiology: report of the nationwide survey. J Gastroenterol 2011;46:1230-7.

119. Yasui K, Hashimoto E, Komorizono Y, Koike K, Arii S, et al. Characteristics of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis who develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;9:428-33.

120. Kawada N, Imanaka K, Kawaguchi T, Tamai C, Ishihara R, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising from non-cirrhotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Gastroenterol 2009;44:1190-4.

121. Pais R, Fartoux L, Goumard C, Scatton O, Wendum D, et al. Temporal trends, clinical patterns and outcomes of NAFLD-related HCC in patients undergoing liver resection over a 20-year period. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017;46:856-63.

122. Grohmann M, Wiede F, Dodd GT, Gurzov EN, Ooi GJ, et al. Obesity drives STAT-1-dependent NASH and STAT-3-dependent HCC. Cell 2018;175:1289-306.e20.

123. Calvisi DF, Ladu S, Gorden A, Farina M, Conner EA, et al. Ubiquitous activation of Ras and Jak/Stat pathways in human HCC. Gastroenterology 2006;130:1117-28.

124. He G, Yu GY, Temkin V, Ogata H, Kuntzen C, et al. Hepatocyte IKKbeta/NF-kappaB inhibits tumor promotion and progression by preventing oxidative stress-driven STAT3 activation. Cancer Cell 2010;17:286-97.

125. Marrero JA, Kulik LM, Sirlin CB, Zhu AX, Finn RS, et al. Diagnosis, staging, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma: 2018 practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology 2018;68:723-50.

126. European Association for the Study of the Liver. Corrigendum to “EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of hepatocellular carcinoma” [J Hepatol 69 (2018) 182-236]. J Hepatol 2019;70:817.

127. Del Poggio P, Olmi S, Ciccarese F, Di Marco M, Rapaccini GL, et al. Factors that affect efficacy of ultrasound surveillance for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;12:1927-33.e2.

128. Simmons O, Fetzer DT, Yokoo T, Marrero JA, Yopp A, et al. Predictors of adequate ultrasound quality for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017;45:169-77.

129. Simmons O, Fetzer DT, Yokoo T, Marrero JA, Yopp A, et al. Editorial: ultrasound surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the 21st century - authors’ reply. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017;45:562-63.

130. Zhang E, Wartelle-Bladou C, Lepanto L, Lachaine J, Cloutier G, et al. Cost-utility analysis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis screening. Eur Radiol 2015;25:3282-94.

131. Khatri G, Pedrosa I, Ananthakrishnan L, de Leon AD, Fetzer DT, et al. Abbreviated-protocol screening MRI vs. complete-protocol diagnostic MRI for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: an equivalence study using LI-RADS v2018. J Magn Reson Imaging 2020;51:415-25.

132. Leerapun A, Suravarapu SV, Bida JP, Clark RJ, Sanders EL, et al. The utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation in a United States referral population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:394-402.

133. Liebman HA, Furie BC, Tong MJ, Blanchard RA, Lo KJ, et al. Des-gamma-carboxy (abnormal) prothrombin as a serum marker of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1984;310:1427-31.

134. Best J, Bechmann LP, Sowa JP, Sydor S, Dechêne A, et al. GALAD score detects early hepatocellular carcinoma in an international cohort of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020;18:728-35.e4.

135. Loomba R, Lim JK, Patton H, El-Serag HB. AGA clinical practice update on screening and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: expert review. Gastroenterology 2020;158:1822-30.

136. Younossi ZM, Otgonsuren M, Henry L, Venkatesan C, Mishra A, et al. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States from 2004 to 2009. Hepatology 2015;62:1723-30.

137. Dyson J, Jaques B, Chattopadyhay D, Lochan R, Graham J, et al. Hepatocellular cancer: the impact of obesity, type 2 diabetes and a multidisciplinary team. J Hepatol 2014;60:110-7.

138. Arase Y, Kobayashi M, Suzuki F, Suzuki Y, Kawamura Y, et al. Difference in malignancies of chronic liver disease due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C in Japanese elderly patients. Hepatol Res 2012;42:264-72.

139. Shen JH, Li YL, Li D, Wang NN, Jing L, et al. The rs738409 (I148M) variant of the PNPLA3 gene and cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. J Lipid Res 2015;56:167-75.

140. Vespasiani-Gentilucci U, Gallo P, Dell’Unto C, Volpentesta M, Antonelli-Incalzi R, et al. Promoting genetics in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: combined risk score through polymorphisms and clinical variables. World J Gastroenterol 2018;24:4835-45.

Hepatoma Research
ISSN 2454-2520 (Online) 2394-5079 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: