1. Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Xu J, Kromer C, Wolinsky Y, Kruchko C, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2009-2013. Neuro Oncol 2016;18:v1-75.

2. Johnson KJ, Cullen J, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Ostrom QT, Langer CE, Turner MC, McKean-Cowdin R, Fisher JL, Lupo PJ, Partap S, Schwartzbaum JA, Scheurer ME. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014;23:2716-36.

3. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. Based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site on April 2018. Available from: [Last accessed on 18 Jul 2018].

4. Lucas MS, Barakat LP, Jones NL, Ulrich CM, Deatrick JA. Expectations for function and independence by childhood brain tumors survivors and their mothers. Narrat Inq Bioeth 2014;4:233-51.

5. van der Woude LL, Gorris MAJ, Halilovic A, Figdor CG, de Vries IJM. Migrating into the tumor: a roadmap for T cells. Trends Cancer 2017;3:797-808.

6. Garrido F, Perea F, Bernal M, Sánchez-Palencia A, Aptsiauri N, Ruiz-Cabello F. The escape of cancer from T cell-mediated immune surveillance: HLA class I loss and tumor tissue architecture. Vaccines 2017;5:7.

7. Carson MJ, Doose JM, Melchior B, Schmid CD, Ploix CC. CNS immune privilege: hiding in plain sight. Immunol Rev 2006;213:48-65.

8. Rizvi NA, Hellmann MD, Snyder A, Kvistborg P, Makarov V, Havel JJ, Lee W, Yuan J, Wong P, Ho TS, Miller ML, Rekhtman N, Moreira AL, Ibrahim F, Bruggeman C, Gasmi B, Zappasodi R, Maeda Y, Sander C, Garon EB, Merghoub T, Wolchok JD, Schumacher TN, Chan TA. Mutational landscape determines sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in non-small cell lung cancer. Science 2015;348:124-8.

9. Supek F, Miñana B, Valcárcel J, Gabaldón T, Lehner B. Synonymous mutations frequently act as driver mutations in human cancers. Cell 2014;156:1324-35.

10. Topalian SL, Sznol M, McDermott DF, Kluger HM, Carvajal RD, Sharfman WH, Brahmer JR, Lawrence DP, Atkins MB, Powderly JD, Leming PD, Lipson EJ, Puzanov I, Smith DC, Taube JM, Wigginton JM, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Pardoll DM, Sosman JA, Hodi FS. Survival, durable tumor remission, and long-term safety in patients with advanced melanoma receiving nivolumab. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1020-30.

11. Rizvi NA, Mazières J, Planchard D, Stinchcombe TE, Dy GK, Antonia SJ, Horn L, Lena H, Minenza E, Mennecier B, Otterson GA, Campos LT, Gandara DR, Levy BP, Nair SG, Zalcman G, Wolf J, Souquet P-J, Baldini E, Cappuzzo F, Chouaid C, Dowlati A, Sanborn R, Lopez-Chavez A, Grohe C, Huber RM, Harbison CT, Baudelet C, Lestini BJ, Ramalingam SS. Activity and safety of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, for patients with advanced, refractory squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 063): a phase 2, single-arm trial. Lancet Oncol 2015;16:257-65.

12. Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SA, Behjati S, Biankin AV, Bignell GR, Bolli N, Borg A, Borresen-Dale AL, Boyault S, Burkhardt B, Butler AP, Caldas C, Davies HR, Desmedt C, Eils R, Eyfjord JE, Foekens JA, Greaves M, Hosoda F, Hutter B, Ilicic T, Imbeaud S, Imielinski M, Jager N, Jones DT, Jones D, Knappskog S, Kool M, Lakhani SR, Lopez-Otin C, Martin S, Munshi NC, Nakamura H, Northcott PA, Pajic M, Papaemmanuil E, Paradiso A, Pearson JV, Puente XS, Raine K, Ramakrishna M, Richardson AL, Richter J, Rosenstiel P, Schlesner M, Schumacher TN, Span PN, Teague JW, Totoki Y, Tutt AN, Valdes-Mas R, van Buuren MM, van 't Veer L, Vincent-Salomon A, Waddell N, Yates LR, Zucman-Rossi J, Futreal PA, McDermott U, Lichter P, Meyerson M, Grimmond SM, Siebert R, Campo E, Shibata T, Pfister SM, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer. Nature 2013;500:415-21.

13. Bouffet E, Larouche V, Campbell BB, Merico D, de Borja R, Aronson M, Durno C, Krueger J, Cabric V, Ramaswamy V, Zhukova N, Mason G, Farah R, Afzal S, Yalon M, Rechavi G, Magimairajan V, Walsh MF, Constantini S, Dvir R, Elhasid R, Reddy A, Osborn M, Sullivan M, Hansford J, Dodgshun A, Klauber-Demore N, Peterson L, Patel S, Lindhorst S, Atkinson J, Cohen Z, Laframboise R, Dirks P, Taylor M, Malkin D, Albrecht S, Dudley RW, Jabado N, Hawkins CE, Shlien A, Tabori U. Immune checkpoint inhibition for hypermutant glioblastoma multiforme resulting from germline biallelic mismatch repair deficiency. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2206-11.

14. Lemos H, Huang L, Chandler PR, Mohamed E, Souza GR, Li L, Pacholczyk G, Barber GN, Hayakawa Y, Munn DH, Mellor AL. Activation of the STING adaptor attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalitis. J Immunol 2014;192:5571-8.

15. Noman MZ, Hasmim M, Messai Y, Terry S, Kieda C, Janji B, Chouaib S. Hypoxia: a key player in antitumor immune response. A review in the theme: cellular responses to hypoxia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2015;309:C569-79.

16. Mantovani A, Sica A, Sozzani S, Allavena P, Vecchi A, Locati M. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol 2004;25:677-86.

17. Chatzinikolaou G, Karakasilioti I, Garinis GA. DNA damage and innate immunity: links and trade-offs. Trends Immunol 2014;35:429-35.

18. Woods D, Turchi JJ. Chemotherapy induced DNA damage response: convergence of drugs and pathways. Cancer Biol Ther 2013;14:379-89.

19. Kondo N, Takahashi A, Ono K, Ohnishi T. DNA damage induced by alkylating agents and repair pathways. J Nucleic Acids 2010;2010:543531.

20. Gasser S, Orsulic S, Brown EJ, Raulet DH. The DNA damage pathway regulates innate immune system ligands of the NKG2D receptor. Nature 2005;436:1186-90.

21. Liontos M, Anastasiou I, Bamias A, Dimopoulos MA. DNA damage, tumor mutational load and their impact on immune responses against cancer. Ann Transl Med 2016;4:264.

22. Torgovnick A, Schumacher B. DNA repair mechanisms in cancer development and therapy. Front Genet 2015;6:157.

23. Bibault JE, Tinhofer I. The role of next-generation sequencing in tumoral radiosensitivity prediction. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2017;3:16-20.

24. Conry RM, Westbrook B, McKee S, Norwood TG. Talimogene laherparepvec: first in class oncolytic virotherapy. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018;14:839-46.

25. Lawler SE, Speranza M, Cho C, Chiocca E. Oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment: a review. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:841-9.

26. Lichty BD, Breitbach CJ, Stojdl DF, Bell JC. Going viral with cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2014;14:559-67.

27. Gromeier M, Nair SK. Recombinant poliovirus for cancer immunotherapy. Ann Rev Med 2018;69:289-99.

28. Duke University. Phase 1b Study PVSRIPO for Recurrent Malignant Glioma in Children. Identifier: NCT03043391 .

29. Tejada S, Alonso M, Patiño A, Fueyo J, Gomez-Manzano C, Diez-Valle R. Phase I trial of DNX-2401 for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma newly diagnosed in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery 2017; doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx507.

30. Mayo Clinic. Wild-Type Reovirus in Combination With Sargramostim in Treating Younger Patients With High-Grade Relapsed or Refractory Brain Tumors. Identifier: NCT02444546 .

31. Waters AM, Johnston JM, Reddy AT, Fiveash J, Madan-Swain A, Kachurak K, Bag AK, Gillespie GY, Markert JM, Friedman GK. Rationale and design of a phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate HSV G207 alone or with a single radiation dose in children with progressive or recurrent malignant supratentorial brain tumors. Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev 2017;28:7-16.

32. University of Alabama at Birmingham. HSV G207 Alone or With a Single Radiation Dose in Children With Progressive or Recurrent Supratentorial Brain Tumors. Identifier: NCT02457845 .

33. Csatary LK, Bakács T. Use of newcastle disease virus vaccine (mth-68/h) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 1999;281:1588-9.

34. Van Gool S, Lulei M, Schirrmacher V, Stuecker W. DIPG-10. Multimodal immunotherapy as part of multimodal treatment for DIPG. Neuro Oncol 2017;19:iv6-7.

35. Brown MC, Holl EK, Boczkowski D, Dobrikova E, Mosaheb M, Chandramohan V, Bigner DD, Gromeier M, Nair SK. Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific CTLs. Sci Transl Med 2017;9:eaan4220.

36. Desjardins A, Sampson JH, Vlahovic G, Peters KB, Randazzo D, Threatt S, Herndon JE, Bullock CA, Miller ES, Boulton S, Lally-Goss D, McSherry F, Lipp ES, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Bigner DD, Gromeier M. Dose finding study of the intratumoral administration of the oncolytic polio/rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) against WHO grade IV malignant glioma (MG). J Clin Oncol 2017;35 suppl 15:e13533.

37. Markert JM, Razdan SN, Kuo HC, Cantor A, Knoll A, Karrasch M, Nabors LB, Markiewicz M, Agee BS, Coleman JM, Lakeman AD, Palmer CA, Parker JN, Whitley RJ, Weichselbaum RR, Fiveash JB, Gillespie GY. A phase 1 trial of oncolytic HSV-1, G207, given in combination with radiation for recurrent GBM demonstrates safety and radiographic responses. Mol Ther 2014;22:1048-55.

38. Clements D, Helson E, Gujar SA, Lee PW. Reovirus in cancer therapy: an evidence-based review. Oncolytic Virother 2014;3:69-82.

39. Samson A, Scott KJ, Taggart D, West EJ, Wilson E, Nuovo GJ, Thomson S, Corns R, Mathew RK, Fuller MJ, Kottke TJ, Thompson JM, Ilett EJ, Cockle JV, van Hille P, Sivakumar G, Polson ES, Turnbull SJ, Appleton ES, Migneco G, Rose AS, Coffey MC, Beirne DA, Collinson FJ, Ralph C, Alan Anthoney D, Twelves CJ, Furness AJ, Quezada SA, Wurdak H, Errington-Mais F, Pandha H, Harrington KJ, Selby PJ, Vile RG, Griffin SD, Stead LF, Short SC, Melcher AA. Intravenous delivery of oncolytic reovirus to brain tumor patients immunologically primes for subsequent checkpoint blockade. Sci Transl Med 2018;10:eaam7577.

40. Schirrmacher V. Fifty years of clinical application of newcastle disease virus: time to celebrate! Biomedicines 2016;4:16.

41. Griffiths DJ. Endogenous retroviruses in the human genome sequence. Genome Biol 2001;2:REVIEWS1017.

42. Yamashita M, Emerman M. Retroviral infection of non-dividing cells: old and new perspectives. Virology 2006;344:88-93.

43. Richardson AM, Collins SA, Inagaki A, Armstrong VL, Roussel M, Jolly D, Robbins DJ, Ayad N, Kasahara N. PDTM-19. TOCA 511 & TOCA FC: pre-clinical proof of concept in medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol 2017;19:vi193.

44. Robbins PD, Ghivizzani SC. Viral vectors for gene therapy. Pharmacol Ther 1998;80:35-47.

45. George LA, Sullivan SK, Giermasz A, Rasko JEJ, Samelson-Jones BJ, Ducore J, Cuker A, Sullivan LM, Majumdar S, Teitel J, McGuinn CE, Ragni MV, Luk AY, Hui D, Wright JF, Chen Y, Liu Y, Wachtel K, Winters A, Tiefenbacher S, Arruda VR, van der Loo JCM, Zelenaia O, Takefman D, Carr ME, Couto LB, Anguela XM, High KA. Hemophilia B gene therapy with a high-specific-activity factor IX variant. N Engl J Med 2017;377:2215-27.

46. Chiocca EA, Yu J, Phuphanich S, Lukas RV, Kumthekar P, Yang Y, Zhou Q, Buck JY, Deary A, Cai H, Barrett JA, Cooper LJN, Lebel FM. Expanded phase I study of intratumoral Ad-RTS-hIL-12 plus oral veledimex: tolerability and survival in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2017;35 suppl 15:2044.

47. Ziopharm. A Study of Ad-RTS-hIL-12 + Veledimex in Pediatric Subjects With Brain Tumors or DIPG. Identifier: NCT03330197 .

48. Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martin M, Press M, Mackey J, Glaspy J, Chan A, Pawlicki M, Pinter T, Valero V, Liu MC, Sauter G, von Minckwitz G, Visco F, Bee V, Buyse M, Bendahmane B, Tabah-Fisch I, Lindsay MA, Riva A, Crown J. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1273-83.

49. Clynes RA, Towers TL, Presta LG, Ravetch JV. Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets. Nat Med 2000;6:443-6.

50. Kute T, Lack CM, Willingham M, Bishwokama B, Williams H, Barrett K, Mitchell T, Vaughn JP. Development of Herceptin resistance in breast cancer cells. Cytometry A 2004;57:86-93.

51. Fiszman GL, Jasnis MA. Molecular mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance in HER2 overexpressing breast cancer. Int J Breast Cancer 2011;2011:352182.

52. Elamin YY, Rafee S, Toomey S, Hennessy BT. Immune effects of bevacizumab: killing two birds with one stone. Cancer Microenviron 2015;8:15-21.

53. Gururangan S, Fangusaro J, Poussaint TY, McLendon RE, Onar-Thomas A, Wu S, Packer RJ, Banerjee A, Gilbertson RJ, Fahey F, Vajapeyam S, Jakacki R, Gajjar A, Goldman S, Pollack IF, Friedman HS, Boyett JM, Fouladi M, Kun LE. Efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas - a pediatric brain tumor consortium study. Neuro Oncol 2014;16:310-7.

54. Cohen MH, Shen YL, Keegan P, Pazdur R. FDA drug approval summary: bevacizumab (Avastin) as treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Oncologist 2009;14:1131-8.

55. Qaddoumi I, Kocak M, Pai-Panandiker A, Armstrong G, Wetmore C, Crawford J, Lin T, Boyett J, Kun L, Boop F, Merchant T, Ellison D, Gajjar A, Broniscer A. Phase II trial of erlotinib during and after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. Front Oncol 2014;4:67.

56. Jakacki RI, Foley MA, Horan J, Wang J, Kieran MW, Bowers DC, Bouffet E, Zacharoulis S, Gill SC. Single-agent erlotinib versus oral etoposide in patients with recurrent or refractory pediatric ependymoma: a randomized open-label study. J Neurooncol 2016;129:131-8.

57. Kol A, van Scheltinga AT, Pool M, Gerdes C, de Vries E, de Jong S. ADCC responses and blocking of EGFR-mediated signaling and cell growth by combining the anti-EGFR antibodies imgatuzumab and cetuximab in NSCLC cells. Oncotarget 2017;8:45432-46.

58. Hassan SB, Sørensen JF, Olsen BN, Pedersen AE. Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy: an update of recent and ongoing clinical trials. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2014;36:96-104.

59. Vonderheide RH, Glennie MJ. Agonistic CD40 antibodies and cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:1035-43.

60. Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium. Phase I Study of APX005M in Pediatric CNS Tumors. Identifier: NCT03389802 .

61. Tseng D, Volkmer JP, Willingham SB, Contreras-Trujillo H, Fathman JW, Fernhoff NB, Seita J, Inlay MA, Weiskopf K, Miyanishi M, Weissman IL. Anti-CD47 antibody–mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages primes an effective antitumor T-cell response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:11103-8.

62. Gholamin S, Mitra SS, Feroze AH, Liu J, Kahn SA, Zhang M, Esparza R, Richard C, Ramaswamy V, Remke M, Volkmer AK, Willingham S, Ponnuswami A, McCarty A, Lovelace P, Storm TA, Schubert S, Hutter G, Narayanan C, Chu P, Raabe EH, Harsh G, Taylor MD, Monje M, Cho YJ, Majeti R, Volkmer JP, Fisher PG, Grant G, Steinberg GK, Vogel H, Edwards M, Weissman IL, Cheshier SH. Disrupting the CD47-SIRPα anti-phagocytic axis by a humanized anti-CD47 antibody is an efficacious treatment for malignant pediatric brain tumors. Sci Transl Med 2017;9:eaaf2968.

63. Bredel M, Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, James CD. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and gene amplification in high-grade non-brainstem gliomas of childhood. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5:1786-92.

64. Chandramohan V, Bao X, Keir ST, Pegram CN, Szafranski SE, Piao H, Wikstrand CJ, McLendon RE, Kuan CT, Pastan IH, Bigner DD. Construction of an immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, targeting EGFRwt and EGFRvIII for brain tumor therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:4717-27.

65. Randazzo D, Desjardins A, Chandramohan V, Sampson JH, Peters KB, Vlahovic G, Threatt S, Herndon JE, Boulton S, Lally-Goss D, Healy P, Lipp ES, Friedman AH, Bigner DD. Phase 1 single-center, dose escalation study of D2C7-IT administered intratumorally via convection-enhanced delivery for adult patients with recurrent malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 2017;35 suppl 15:e13532.

66. Chandramohan V, Bao X, Kato Kaneko M, Kato Y, Keir ST, Szafranski SE, Kuan CT, Pastan IH, Bigner DD. Recombinant anti-podoplanin (NZ-1) immunotoxin for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Int J Cancer 2013;132:2339-48.

67. Rainov NG, Heidecke V. Long term survival in a patient with recurrent malignant glioma treated with intratumoral infusion of an IL4-targeted toxin (NBI-3001). J Neurooncol 2004;66:197-201.

68. Kunwar S, Prados MD, Chang SM, Berger MS, Lang FF, Piepmeier JM, Sampson JH, Ram Z, Gutin PH, Gibbons RD, Aldape KD, Croteau DJ, Sherman JW, Puri RK. Direct intracerebral delivery of cintredekin besudotox (IL13-PE38QQR) in recurrent malignant glioma: a report by the Cintredekin Besudotox Intraparenchymal Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:837-44.

69. Sampson JH, Akabani G, Archer GE, Bigner DD, Berger MS, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Herndon JE 2nd, Kunwar S, Marcus S, McLendon RE, Paolino A, Penne K, Provenzale J, Quinn J, Reardon DA, Rich J, Stenzel T, Tourt-Uhlig S, Wikstrand C, Wong T, Williams R, Yuan F, Zalutsky MR, Pastan I. Progress report of a phase I study of the intracerebral microinfusion of a recombinant chimeric protein composed of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and a mutated form of the Pseudomonas exotoxin termed PE-38 (TP-38) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. J Neurooncol 2003;65:27-35.

70. Luther N, Zhou Z, Zanzonico P, Cheung N-K, Humm J, Edgar MA, Souweidane MM. The potential of theragnostic 124I-8H9 convection-enhanced delivery in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Neuro Oncol 2014;16:800-6.

71. Y-mAbs Therapeutics. Convection-Enhanced Delivery of 124I-8H9 for Patients With Non-Progressive Diffuse Pontine Gliomas Previously Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy. Identifier: NCT01502917 .

72. Przepiorka D, Ko C-W, Deisseroth A, Yancey CL, Candau-Chacon R, Chiu H-J, Gehrke BJ, Gomez-Broughton C, Kane RC, Kirshner S, Mehrotra N, Ricks TK, Schmiel D, Song P, Zhao P, Zhou Q, Farrell AT, Pazdur R. FDA approval: blinatumomab. Clin Cancer Res 2015;21:4035-9.

73. Gedeon PC, Schaller TH, Chitneni SK, Choi BD, Kuan CT, Suryadevara CM, Snyder DJ, Schmittling RJ, Szafranski SE, Cui X, Healy P, Herndon JE, McLendon RE, Keir ST, Archer GE, Reap E, Sanchez-Perez L, Bigner DD, Sampson JH. A rationally designed fully human EGFRvIII:CD3-targeted bispecific antibody redirects human T cells to treat patient-derived intracerebral malignant glioma. Clin Cancer Res 2018; doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0126.

74. Wu G, Diaz AK, Paugh BS, Rankin SL, Ju B, Li Y, Zhu X, Qu C, Chen X, Zhang J, Easton J, Edmonson M, Ma X, Lu C, Nagahawatte P, Hedlund E, Rusch M, Pounds S, Lin T, Onar-Thomas A, Huether R, Kriwacki R, Parker M, Gupta P, Becksfort J, Wei L, Mulder HL, Boggs K, Vadodaria B, Yergeau D, Russell JC, Ochoa K, Fulton RS, Fulton LL, Jones C, Boop FA, Broniscer A, Wetmore C, Gajjar A, Ding L, Mardis ER, Wilson RK, Taylor MR, Downing JR, Ellison DW, Zhang J, Baker SJ. The genomic landscape of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and pediatric non-brainstem high-grade glioma. Nat Genet 2014;46:444-50.

75. Topalian SL, Hodi FS, Brahmer JR, Gettinger SN, Smith DC, McDermott DF, Powderly JD, Carvajal RD, Sosman JA, Atkins MB, Leming PD, Spigel DR, Antonia SJ, Horn L, Drake CG, Pardoll DM, Chen L, Sharfman WH, Anders RA, Taube JM, McMiller TL, Xu H, Korman AJ, Jure-Kunkel M, Agrawal S, McDonald D, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Wigginton JM, Sznol M. Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:2443-54.

76. Brahmer JR, Tykodi SS, Chow LQ, Hwu WJ, Topalian SL, Hwu P, Drake CG, Camacho LH, Kauh J, Odunsi K, Pitot HC, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Martins R, Eaton K, Chen S, Salay TM, Alaparthy S, Grosso JF, Korman AJ, Parker SM, Agrawal S, Goldberg SM, Pardoll DM, Gupta A, Wigginton JM. Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:2455-65.

77. Reardon DA, Omuro A, Brandes AA, Rieger J, Wick A, Sepulveda J, Phuphanich S, de Souza P, Ahluwalia MS, Lim M, Vlahovic G, Sampson J. OS10. 3 Randomized phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of nivolumab vs bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: CheckMate 143. Neuro Oncol 2017;19:iii21.

78. Francisco LM, Sage PT, Sharpe AH. The PD-1 pathway in tolerance and autoimmunity. Immunol Rev 2010;236:219-42.

79. Iwai Y, Ishida M, Tanaka Y, Okazaki T, Honjo T, Minato N. Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:12293-7.

80. Nduom EK, Wei J, Yaghi NK, Huang N, Kong L-Y, Gabrusiewicz K, Ling X, Zhou S, Ivan C, Chen JQ, Burks JK, Fuller GN, Calin GA, Conrad CA, Creasy C, Ritthipichai K, Radvanyi L, Heimberger AB. PD-L1 expression and prognostic impact in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol 2016;18:195-205.

81. Mahadevan N, Adeni A, Hammerman P, Awad M, Gandhi L, Sholl L. MA15.02 non-synonymous mutation burden in lung carcinoma is associated with durable clinical response to immune checkpoint blockade. J Thorac Oncol 2017;12:S428-9.

82. Zappasodi R, Merghoub T, Wolchok JD. Emerging concepts for immune checkpoint blockade-based combination therapies. Cancer Cell 2018;33:581-98.

83. Snyder A, Makarov V, Merghoub T, Yuan J, Zaretsky JM, Desrichard A, Walsh LA, Postow MA, Wong P, Ho TS, Hollmann TJ, Bruggeman C, Kannan K, Li Y, Elipenahli C, Liu C, Harbison CT, Wang L, Ribas A, Wolchok JD, Chan TA. Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma. N Engl J Med 2014;371:2189-99.

84. Le DT, Uram JN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Kemberling H, Eyring AD, Skora AD, Luber BS, Azad NS, Laheru D, Biedrzycki B, Donehower RC, Zaheer A, Fisher GA, Crocenzi TS, Lee JJ, Duffy SM, Goldberg RM, de la Chapelle A, Koshiji M, Bhaijee F, Huebner T, Hruban RH, Wood LD, Cuka N, Pardoll DM, Papadopoulos N, Kinzler KW, Zhou S, Cornish TC, Taube JM, Anders RA, Eshleman JR, Vogelstein B, Diaz LA Jr. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatch-repair deficiency. N Engl J Med 2015;372:2509-20.

85. Greenman C, Stephens P, Smith R, Dalgliesh GL, Hunter C, Bignell G, Davies H, Teague J, Butler A, Stevens C, Edkins S, O'Meara S, Vastrik I, Schmidt EE, Avis T, Barthorpe S, Bhamra G, Buck G, Choudhury B, Clements J, Cole J, Dicks E, Forbes S, Gray K, Halliday K, Harrison R, Hills K, Hinton J, Jenkinson A, Jones D, Menzies A, Mironenko T, Perry J, Raine K, Richardson D, Shepherd R, Small A, Tofts C, Varian J, Webb T, West S, Widaa S, Yates A, Cahill DP, Louis DN, Goldstraw P, Nicholson AG, Brasseur F, Looijenga L, Weber BL, Chiew YE, deFazio A, Greaves MF, Green AR, Campbell P, Birney E, Easton DF, Chenevix-Trench G, Tan MH, Khoo SK, Teh BT, Yuen ST, Leung SY, Wooster R, Futreal PA, Stratton MR. Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes. Nature 2007;446:153.

86. Hodges TR, Ott M, Xiu J, Gatalica Z, Swensen J, Zhou S, Huse JT, de Groot J, Li S, Overwijk WW, Spetzler D, Heimberger AB. Mutational burden, immune checkpoint expression, and mismatch repair in glioma: implications for immune checkpoint immunotherapy. Neuro Oncol 2017;19:1047-57.

87. Bristol-Myers Squibb. An Investigational Immuno-therapy Study of Nivolumab Compared to Temozolomide, Each Given With Radiation Therapy, for Newly-diagnosed Patients With Glioblastoma (GBM, a Malignant Brain Cancer) (CheckMate 498). Identifier: NCT02617589 .

88. Bristol-Myers Squibb. An Investigational Immuno-therapy Study of Temozolomide Plus Radiation Therapy With Nivolumab or Placebo, for Newly Diagnosed Patients With Glioblastoma (GBM, a Malignant Brain Cancer) (CheckMate548). Identifier: NCT02667587 .

89. Garber K. A new cancer immunotherapy suffers a setback. Science 2018;360:588.

90. Schaller TH, Sampson JH. Advances and challenges: dendritic cell vaccination strategies for glioblastoma. Expert Rev Vaccines 2017;16:27-36.

91. Palucka K, Banchereau J. Dendritic-cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines. Immunity 2013;39:38-48.

92. Banchereau J, Palucka K. Cancer vaccines on the move. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2017;15:9.

93. Caruso DA, Orme LM, Neale AM, Radcliff FJ, Amor GM, Maixner W, Downie P, Hassall TE, Tang MLK, Ashley DM. Results of a phase 1 study utilizing monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA in children and young adults with brain cancer. Neuro Oncol 2004;6:236-46.

94. Rutkowski S, De Vleeschouwer S, Kaempgen E, Wolff JEA, Kühl J, Demaerel P, Warmuth-Metz M, Flamen P, Van Calenbergh F, Plets C, Sörensen N, Opitz A, Van Gool SW. Surgery and adjuvant dendritic cell-based tumour vaccination for patients with relapsed malignant glioma, a feasibility study. Br J Cancer 2004;91:1656.

95. Lasky JL 3rd, Panosyan EH, Plant A, Davidson T, Yong WH, Prins RM, Liau LM, Moore TB. Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas. Anticancer Res 2013;33:2047-56.

96. De Vleeschouwer S, Fieuws S, Rutkowski S, Van Calenbergh F, Van Loon J, Goffin J, Sciot R, Wilms G, Demaerel P, Warmuth-Metz M, Soerensen N, Wolff JEA, Wagner S, Kaempgen E, Van Gool SW. Postoperative Adjuvant dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in patients with relapsed glioblastoma multiforme. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:3098.

97. Cobbs CS, Harkins L, Samanta M, Gillespie GY, Bharara S, King PH, Nabors LB, Cobbs CG, Britt WJ. Human cytomegalovirus infection and expression in human malignant glioma. Cancer Res 2002;62:3347-50.

98. Prins RM, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM. Cytomegalovirus immunity after vaccination with autologous glioblastoma lysate. N Engl J Med 2008;359:539-41.

99. Batich KA, Reap EA, Archer GE, Sanchez-Perez L, Nair SK, Schmittling RJ, Norberg P, Xie W, Herndon JE 2nd, Healy P, McLendon RE, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Bigner D, Vlahovic G, Mitchell DA, Sampson JH. Long-term survival in glioblastoma with cytomegalovirus pp65-targeted vaccination. Clin Cancer Res 2017;23:1898-909.

100. Mitchell DA, Batich KA, Gunn MD, Huang MN, Sanchez-Perez L, Nair SK, Congdon KL, Reap EA, Archer GE, Desjardins A, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Herndon JE 2nd, Coan A, McLendon RE, Reardon DA, Vredenburgh JJ, Bigner DD, Sampson JH. Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients. Nature 2015;519:366-9.

101. University of California, Francisco San. H3.3K27M Peptide Vaccine for Children With Newly Diagnosed DIPG and Other Gliomas. Identifier: NCT02960230.

102. Gary Archer Ph.D, Duke University. PEP-CMV in Recurrent MEdulloblastoma/Malignant Glioma (PRiME). Identifier: NCT03299309.

103. Ian F. Pollack, M. D., University of Pittsburgh. A Pilot Study of Glioma Associated Antigen Vaccines in Conjunction With Poly-ICLC in Pediatric Gliomas. Identifier: NCT01130077.

104. Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Butterfield LH, Hamilton RL, Panigrahy A, Potter DM, Connelly AK, Dibridge SA, Whiteside TL, Okada H. Antigen-specific immune responses and clinical outcome after vaccination with glioma-associated antigen peptides and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose in children with newly diagnosed malignant brainstem and nonbrainstem gliomas. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:2050-8.

105. Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Butterfield LH, Hamilton RL, Panigrahy A, Normolle DP, Connelly AK, Dibridge S, Mason G, Whiteside TL, Okada H. Immune responses and outcome after vaccination with glioma-associated antigen peptides and poly-ICLC in a pilot study for pediatric recurrent low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol 2016;18:1157-68.

106. Ascarateil S, Puget A, Koziol ME. Safety data of Montanide ISA 51 VG and Montanide ISA 720 VG, two adjuvants dedicated to human therapeutic vaccines. J Immunother Cancer 2015;3:P428.

107. Ott PA, Hu Z, Keskin DB, Shukla SA, Sun J, Bozym DJ, Zhang W, Luoma A, Giobbie-Hurder A, Peter L, Chen C, Olive O, Carter TA, Li S, Lieb DJ, Eisenhaure T, Gjini E, Stevens J, Lane WJ, Javeri I, Nellaiappan K, Salazar AM, Daley H, Seaman M, Buchbinder EI, Yoon CH, Harden M, Lennon N, Gabriel S, Rodig SJ, Barouch DH, Aster JC, Getz G, Wucherpfennig K, Neuberg D, Ritz J, Lander ES, Fritsch EF, Hacohen N, Wu CJ. An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma. Nature 2017;547:217-21.

108. Kruse CA, Cepeda L, Owens B, Johnson SD, Stears J, Lillehei KO. Treatment of recurrent glioma with intracavitary alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interleukin-2. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1997;45:77-87.

109. Plautz GE, Barnett GH, Miller DW, Cohen BH, Prayson RA, Krauss JC, Luciano M, Kangisser DB, Shu S. Systemic T cell adoptive immunotherapy of malignant gliomas. J Neurosurg 1998;89:42-51.

110. Exley MA, Friedlander P, Alatrakchi N, Vriend L, Yue S, Sasada T, Zeng W, Mizukami Y, Clark J, Nemer D, LeClair K, Canning C, Daley H, Dranoff G, Giobbie-Hurder A, Hodi FS, Ritz J, Balk SP. Adoptive transfer of invariant NKT cells as immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: a phase I clinical trial. Clin Cancer Res 2017;23:3510-9.

111. Maude SL, Frey N, Shaw PA, Aplenc R, Barrett DM, Bunin NJ, Chew A, Gonzalez VE, Zheng Z, Lacey SF, Mahnke YD, Melenhorst JJ, Rheingold SR, Shen A, Teachey DT, Levine BL, June CH, Porter DL, Grupp SA. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1507-17.

112. Schuster SJ, Svoboda J, Chong EA, Nasta SD, Mato AR, Anak O, Brogdon JL, Pruteanu-Malinici I, Bhoj V, Landsburg D, Wasik M, Levine BL, Lacey SF, Melenhorst JJ, Porter DL, June CH. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells in refractory B-cell lymphomas. N Engl J Med 2017;377:2545-54.

113. Ahmed N, Brawley V, Hegde M, Bielamowicz K, Kalra M, Landi D, Robertson C, Gray TL, Diouf O, Wakefield A, Ghazi A, Gerken C, Yi Z, Ashoori A, Wu MF, Liu H, Rooney C, Dotti G, Gee A, Su J, Kew Y, Baskin D, Zhang YJ, New P, Grilley B, Stojakovic M, Hicks J, Powell SZ, Brenner MK, Heslop HE, Grossman R, Wels WS, Gottschalk S. Her2-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified virus-specific T cells for progressive glioblastoma: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:1094-101.

114. Brown CE, Alizadeh D, Starr R, Weng L, Wagner JR, Naranjo A, Ostberg JR, Blanchard MS, Kilpatrick J, Simpson J, Kurien A, Priceman SJ, Wang X, Harshbarger TL, D'Apuzzo M, Ressler JA, Jensen MC, Barish ME, Chen M, Portnow J, Forman SJ, Badie B. Regression of glioblastoma after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. N Engl J Med 2016;375:2561-9.

115. O'Rourke DM, Nasrallah MP, Desai A, Melenhorst JJ, Mansfield K, Morrissette JJD, Martinez-Lage M, Brem S, Maloney E, Shen A, Isaacs R, Mohan S, Plesa G, Lacey SF, Navenot JM, Zheng Z, Levine BL, Okada H, June CH, Brogdon JL, Maus MV. A single dose of peripherally infused EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells mediates antigen loss and induces adaptive resistance in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Sci Transl Med 2017;9:eaaa0984.

116. Fuda Cancer Hospital, Guangzhou. CAR-T Cell Immunotherapy for EphA2 Positive Malignant Glioma Patients. Identifier: NCT02575261 .

117. Long AH, Haso WM, Shern JF, Wanhainen KM, Murgai M, Ingaramo M, Smith JP, Walker AJ, Kohler ME, Venkateshwara VR, Kaplan RN, Patterson GH, Fry TJ, Orentas RJ, Mackall CL. 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates T cell exhaustion induced by tonic signaling of chimeric antigen receptors. Nat Med 2015;21:581-90.

118. Fangusaro JR, Onar-Thomas A, Young-Poussaint T, Wu S, Ligon AH, Lindeman NI, Banerjee A, Packer R, Kilburn LB, Pollack I, Jakacki R, Qaddoumi IA, Fisher PG, Dhall G, Baxter PA, Kreissman SG, Doyle LA, Smith MA, Dunkel IJ, Fouladi M. A phase II prospective study of selumetinib in children with recurrent or refractory low-grade glioma (LGG): a pediatric brain tumor consortium (PBTC) study. J Clin Oncol 2017;35 suppl 15:10504.

Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
ISSN 2349-6142 (Online) 2347-8659 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: