1. Frey BN, Andreazza AC, Houenou J, Jamain S, Goldstein BI, Frye MA, Leboyer M, Berk M, Malhi GS, Lopez-Jaramillo C, Taylor VH, Dodd S, Frangou S, Hall GB, Fernandes BS, Kauer-Sant'Anna M, Yatham LN, Kapczinski F, Young LT. Biomarkers in bipolar disorder: a positional paper from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Biomarkers Task Force. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2013;47:321-32.

2. Mitchell RH, Goldstein BI. Inflammation in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders: a systematic review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53:274-96.

3. Goldstein BI, Young LT. Toward clinically applicable biomarkers in bipolar disorder: focus on BDNF, inflammatory markers, and endothelial function. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2013;15:425.

4. Cunha AB, Frey BN, Andreazza AC, Goi JD, Rosa AR, Goncalves CA, Santin A, Kapczinski F. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor is decreased in bipolar disorder during depressive and manic episodes. Neurosci Lett 2006;398:215-9.

5. Machado-Vieira R, Dietrich MO, Leke R, Cereser VH, Zanatto V, Kapczinski F, Souza DO, Portela LV, Gentil V. Decreased plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in unmedicated bipolar patients during manic episode. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:142-4.

6. Frey BN, Andreazza AC, Kunz M, Gomes FA, Quevedo J, Salvador M, Goncalves CA, Kapczinski F. Increased oxidative stress and DNA damage in bipolar disorder: a twin-case report. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007;31:283-5.

7. Gonul AS, Akdeniz F, Taneli F, Donat O, Eker C, Vahip S. Effect of treatment on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in depressed patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;255:381-6.

8. de Sousa RT, van de Bilt MT, Diniz BS, Ladeira RB, Portela LV, Souza DO, Forlenza OV, Gattaz WF, Machado-Vieira R. Lithium increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in acute bipolar mania: a preliminary 4-week study. Neurosci Lett 2011;494:54-6.

9. Tramontina JF, Andreazza AC, Kauer-Sant'anna M, Stertz L, Goi J, Chiarani F, Kapczinski F. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels before and after treatment for acute mania. Neurosci Lett 2009;452:111-3.

10. Kauer-Sant'Anna M, Kapczinski F, Andreazza AC, Bond DJ, Lam RW, Young LT, Yatham LN. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers in patients with early- vs. late-stage bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2009;12:447-58.

11. Sussulini A, Dihazi H, Banzato CE, Arruda MA, Stuhmer W, Ehrenreich H, Jahn O, Kratzin HD. Apolipoprotein A-I as a candidate serum marker for the response to lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Proteomics 2011;11:261-9.

12. Herberth M, Koethe D, Levin Y, Schwarz E, Krzyszton ND, Schoeffmann S, Ruh H, Rahmoune H, Kranaster L, Schoenborn T, Leweke MF, Guest PC, Bahn S. Peripheral profiling analysis for bipolar disorder reveals markers associated with reduced cell survival. Proteomics 2011;11:94-105.

13. Brietzke E, Stertz L, Fernandes BS, Kauer-Sant'anna M, Mascarenhas M, Escosteguy Vargas A, Chies JA, Kapczinski F. Comparison of cytokine levels in depressed, manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2009;116:214-7.

14. Kim JW, Szigethy EM, Melhem NM, Saghafi EM, Brent DA. Inflammatory markers and the pathogenesis of pediatric depression and suicide: a systematic review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry 2014;75:1242-53.

15. Kim YK, Jung HG, Myint AM, Kim H, Park SH. Imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2007;104:91-5.

16. O'Brien SM, Scully P, Scott LV, Dinan TG. Cytokine profiles in bipolar affective disorder: focus on acutely ill patients. J Affect Disord 2006;90:263-7.

17. Weiner M, Warren L, Fiedorowicz JG. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in bipolar disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2011;23:40-7.

18. Leboyer M, Soreca I, Scott J, Frye M, Henry C, Tamouza R, Kupfer DJ. Can bipolar disorder be viewed as a multi-system inflammatory disease? J Affect Disord 2012;141:1-10.

19. de Gonzalo-Calvo D, Neitzert K, Fernandez M, Vega-Naredo I, Caballero B, Garcia-Macia M, Suarez FM, Rodriguez-Colunga MJ, Solano JJ, Coto-Montes A. Differential inflammatory responses in aging and disease: TNF-alpha and IL-6 as possible biomarkers. Free Radic Biol Med 2010;49:733-7.

20. Berk M, Kapczinski F, Andreazza AC, Dean OM, Giorlando F, Maes M, Yucel M, Gama CS, Dodd S, Dean B, Magalhaes PV, Amminger P, McGorry P, Malhi GS. Pathways underlying neuroprogression in bipolar disorder: focus on inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011;35:804-17.

21. Merikangas KR, Cui L, Kattan G, Carlson GA, Youngstrom EA, Angst J. Mania with and without depression in a community sample of US adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69:943-51.

22. Birmaher B, Axelson D, Goldstein B, Strober M, Gill MK, Hunt J, Houck P, Ha W, Iyengar S, Kim E, Yen S, Hower H, Esposito-Smythers C, Goldstein T, Ryan N, Keller M. Four-year longitudinal course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders: the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study. Am J Psychiatry 2009;166:795-804.

23. Uchida M, Serra G, Zayas L, Kenworthy T, Hughes B, Koster A, Faraone SV, Biederman J. Can manic switches be predicted in pediatric major depression? A systematic literature review. J Affect Disord 2014;172C:300-6.

24. Uchida M, Serra G, Zayas L, Kenworthy T, Faraone SV, Biederman J. Can unipolar and bipolar pediatric major depression be differentiated from each other? A systematic review of cross-sectional studies examining differences in unipolar and bipolar depression. J Affect Disord 2015;176:1-7.

25. Duffy A. The early natural history of bipolar disorder: what we have learned from longitudinal high-risk research. Can J Psychiatry 2010;55:477-85.

26. Mesman E, Hillegers MH, Ambree O, Arolt V, Nolen WA, Drexhage HA. Monocyte activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100B in bipolar offspring: a follow-up study from adolescence into adulthood. Bipolar Disord 2015;17:39-49.

27. Gabbay V, Klein RG, Alonso CM, Babb JS, Nishawala M, De Jesus G, Hirsch GS, Hottinger-Blanc PM, Gonzalez CJ. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 2009;115:177-82.

28. Pandey GN, Rizavi HS, Ren X, Fareed J, Hoppensteadt DA, Roberts RC, Conley RR, Dwivedi Y. Proinflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of teenage suicide victims. J Psychiatr Res 2012;46:57-63.

29. Goldstein BI, Collinger KA, Lotrich F, Marsland AL, Gill MK, Axelson DA, Birmaher B. Preliminary findings regarding proinflammatory markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor among adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2011;21:479-84.

30. Mendlewicz J, Kriwin P, Oswald P, Souery D, Alboni S, Brunello N. Shortened onset of action of antidepressants in major depression using acetylsalicylic acid augmentation: a pilot open-label study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2006;21:227-31.

31. Muller N, Schwarz MJ, Dehning S, Douhe A, Cerovecki A, Goldstein-Muller B, Spellmann I, Hetzel G, Maino K, Kleindienst N, Moller HJ, Arolt V, Riedel M. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib has therapeutic effects in major depression: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, add-on pilot study to reboxetine. Mol Psychiatry 2006;11:680-4.

32. Nery FG, Monkul ES, Hatch JP, Fonseca M, Zunta-Soares GB, Frey BN, Bowden CL, Soares JC. Celecoxib as an adjunct in the treatment of depressive or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol 2008;23:87-94.

33. Raison CL, Rutherford RE, Woolwine BJ, Shuo C, Schettler P, Drake DF, Haroon E, Miller AH. A randomized controlled trial of the tumor necrosis factor antagonist infliximab for treatment-resistant depression: the role of baseline inflammatory biomarkers. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70:31-41.

34. Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Davis JM, Mischoulon D, Peet M, Keck PE Jr, Marangell LB, Richardson AJ, Lake J, Stoll AL. Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:1954-67.

35. Barzman D, Eliassen J, McNamara R, Abonia P, Mossman D, Durling M, Adler C, DelBello M, Lin PI. Correlations of inflammatory gene pathways, corticolimbic functional activities, and aggression in pediatric bipolar disorder: a preliminary study. Psychiatry Res 2014;224:107-11.

36. Su SC, Sun MT, Wen MJ, Lin CJ, Chen YC, Hung YJ. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, adiponectin, and proinflammatory markers in various subtypes of depression in young men. Int J Psychiatry Med 2011;42:211-26.

37. Pandey GN, Rizavi HS, Dwivedi Y, Pavuluri MN. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in pediatric bipolar disorder: effects of treatment and clinical response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:1077-85.

38. Lagopoulos J, Hermens DF, Tobias-Webb J, Duffy S, Naismith SL, White D, Scott E, Hickie IB. In vivo glutathione levels in young persons with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Psychiatr Res 2013;47:412-7.

39. Chitty KM, Lagopoulos J, Hickie IB, Hermens DF. Risky alcohol use in young persons with emerging bipolar disorder is associated with increased oxidative stress. J Affect Disord 2013;150:1238-41.

40. Magalhaes PV, Jansen K, Pinheiro RT, Colpo GD, da Motta LL, Klamt F, da Silva RA, Kapczinski F. Peripheral oxidative damage in early-stage mood disorders: a nested population-based case-control study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2012;15:1043-50.

41. Wiener C, Rassier GT, Kaster MP, Jansen K, Pinheiro RT, Klamt F, Magalhaes PV, Kapczinski F, Ghisleni G, da Silva RA. Gender-based differences in oxidative stress parameters do not underlie the differences in mood disorders susceptibility between sexes. Eur Psychiatry 2014;29:58-63.

42. Ongur D, Jensen JE, Prescot AP, Stork C, Lundy M, Cohen BM, Renshaw PF. Abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal-glial interactions in acute mania. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64:718-26.

43. Atmaca M, Yildirim H. Altered neurochemical ingredient of hippocampus in patients with bipolar depression. Depress Res Treat 2012;2012:485249.

44. Tanovic A, Alfaro V. Glutamate-related excitotoxicity neuroprotection with memantine, an uncompetitive antagonist of NMDA-glutamate receptor, in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Rev Neurol 2006;42:607-16.

45. Takeuchi H, Jin S, Wang J, Zhang G, Kawanokuchi J, Kuno R, Sonobe Y, Mizuno T, Suzumura A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner. J Biol Chem 2006;281:21362-8.

46. Gray JD, McEwen BS. Lithium's role in neural plasticity and its implications for mood disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;128:347-61.

47. Serra G, Koukopoulos A, De Chiara L, Koukopoulos AE, Tondo L, Girardi P, Baldessarini RJ, Serra G. Three-year, naturalistic, mirror-image assessment of adding memantine to the treatment of 30 treatment-resistant patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76:e91-7.

48. La Spada AR. Memantine strikes the perfect balance. Nat Med 2009;15:1355-6.

Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
ISSN 2349-6142 (Online) 2347-8659 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: