1. Ruíz-Sandoval JL, Cantú C, Barinagarrementeria F. Intracerebral hemorrhage in young people: analysis of risk factors, location, causes, and prognosis. Stroke 1999;30:537-41.

2. Choi JH, Mohr JP. Brain arteriovenous malformations in adults. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:299-308.

3. Fullerton HJ, Achrol AS, Johnston SC, McCulloch CE, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Young WL. Long-term hemorrhage risk in children versus adults with brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke 2005;36:2099-104.

4. Davidson AS, Morgan MK. The embryologic basis for the anatomy of the cerebral vasculature related to arteriovenous malformations. J Clin Neurosci 2011;18:464-9.

5. Kim H, Su H, Weinsheimer S, Pawlikowska L, Young WL. Brain arteriovenous malformation pathogenesis: a response-to-injury paradigm. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2011;111:83-92.

6. Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Young WL. Genetics and vascular biology of brain vascular malformations. In: Mohr JP, Wolf PA, Grotta JC, Moskowitz MA, Mayberg MR, von Kummer R, editors. Stroke: pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 5th ed., Ch. 12. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2011. pp. 169-86.

7. Kim H, Marchuk DA, Pawlikowska L, Chen Y, Su H, Yang GY, Young WL. Genetic considerations relevant to intracranial hemorrhage and brain arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2008;105:199-206.

8. Choi EJ, Chen W, Jun K, Arthur HM, Young WL, Su H. Novel brain arteriovenous malformation mouse models for type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. PLoS One 2014;9:e88511.

9. Moftakhar P, Hauptman JS, Malkasian D, Martin NA. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Part 1: cellular and molecular biology. Neurosurg Focus 2009;26:E10.

10. Chen W, Guo Y, Walker EJ, Shen F, Jun K, Oh SP, Degos V, Lawton MT, Tihan T, Davalos D, Akassoglou K, Nelson J, Pile-Spellman J, Su H, Young WL. Reduced mural cell coverage and impaired vessel integrity after angiogenic stimulation in the Alk1-deficient brain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013;33:305-10.

11. Chen W, Sun Z, Han Z, Jun K, Camus M, Wankhede M, Mao L, Arnold T, Young WL, Su H. De novo cerebrovascular malformation in the adult mouse after endothelial Alk1 deletion and angiogenic stimulation. Stroke 2014;45:900-2.

12. Chen W, Choi EJ, McDougall CM, Su H. Brain arteriovenous malformation modeling, pathogenesis, and novel therapeutic targets. Transl Stroke Res 2014;5:316-29.

13. Chen Y, Zhu W, Bollen AW, Lawton MT, Barbaro NM, Dowd CF, Hashimoto T, Yang GY, Young WL. Evidence of inflammatory cell involvement in brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery 2008;62:1340-9.

14. Chen Y, Fan Y, Poon KY, Achrol AS, Lawton MT, Zhu Y, McCulloch CE, Hashimoto T, Lee C, Barbaro NM, Bollen AW, Yang GY, Young WL. MMP-9 expression is associated with leukocytic but not endothelial markers in brain arteriovenous malformations. Front Biosci 2006;11:3121-8.

15. Chen Y, Pawlikowska L, Yao JS, Shen F, Zhai W, Achrol AS, Lawton MT, Kwok PY, Yang GY, Young WL. Interleukin-6 involvement in brain arteriovenous malformations. Ann Neurol 2006;59:72-80.

16. Hashimoto G, Inoki I, Fujii Y, Aoki T, Ikeda E, Okada Y. Matrix metalloproteinases cleave connective tissue growth factor and reactivate angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor 165. J Biol Chem 2002;277:36288-95.

17. Storer KP, Tu J, Karunanayaka A, Morgan MK, Stoodley MA. Inflammatory molecule expression in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Clin Neurosci 2008;15:179-84.

18. Hasan DM, Amans M, Tihan T, Hess C, Guo Y, Cha S, Su H, Martin AJ, Lawton MT, Neuwelt EA, Saloner DA, Young WL. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI to image inflammation within human brain arteriovenous malformations: a pilot investigation. Transl Stroke Res 2012;3:166-73.

19. Prayer L, Wimberger D, Stiglbauer R, Kramer J, Richling B, Bavinzski G, Czech T, Imhof H. Haemorrhage in intracerebral arteriovenous malformations: detection with MRI and comparison with clinical history. Neuroradiology 1993;35:424-7.

20. Yousem DM, Flamm ES, Grossman RI. Comparison of MR imaging with clinical history in the identification of hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1989;10:1151-4.

21. Guo Y, Saunders T, Su H, Kim H, Akkoc D, Saloner DA, Hetts SW, Hess C, Lawton MT, Bollen AW, Pourmohamad T, McCulloch CE, Tihan T, Young WL. Silent intralesional microhemorrhage as a risk factor for brain arteriovenous malformation rupture. Stroke 2012;43:1240-6.

22. Shi C, Shenkar R, Du H, Duckworth E, Raja H, Batjer HH, Awad IA. Immune response in human cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke 2009;40:1659-65.

23. Halim AX, Singh V, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Gress DR, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations with coexisting aneurysms: a comparison of two referral centers. Stroke 2002;33:675-9.

24. Aziz MM, Takagi Y, Hashimoto N, Miyamoto S. Activation of nuclear factor kappaB in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery 2010;67:1669-79.

25. Redekop GJ, Elisevich KV, Gaspar LE, Wiese KP, Drake CG. Conventional radiation therapy of intracranial arteriovenous malfor mations: long-ter m results. J Neurosurg 1993;78:413-22.

26. Adams RA, Schachtrup C, Davalos D, Tsigelny I, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen signal transduction as a mediator and therapeutic target in inflammation: lessons from multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Chem 2007;14:2925-36.

27. Shenkar R, Shi C, Check IJ, Lipton HL, Awad IA. Concepts and hypotheses: inflammatory hypothesis in the pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurosurgery 2007;61:693-702.

28. Shi C, Shenkar R, Batjer HH, Check IJ, Awad IA. Oligoclonal immune response in cerebral cavernous malformations. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg 2007;107:1023-6.

Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
ISSN 2349-6142 (Online) 2347-8659 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: