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Volume 8, Issue 1 (2021) –

Cover Picture: Molecular components and pathways of BMP signaling. The BMP signaling is initiated by the binding of BMP ligands to BMPR1 and BMPR2. In the canonical pathway, BMP receptors phosphorylate Smad1/5/8, which can bind to Co-Smad4 and are translocated to the nucleus to regulate the expression of target genes. In the non-canonical pathways, BMP receptors activate non-Smad pathways. Termination of BMP signaling is achieved by noggin, Smad6, and/or Smad7.
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