The Latest Articles on Parkinson's Disease
Our staff editors continue to share exciting, interesting, and thought-provoking reading material in the recommended articles series.
This week, we would like to share several latest articles on Parkinson's disease.
Title: Incidence of cataract surgeries in relation to diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
Authors: Pasi Lampela, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Kai Kaarniranta, Kaisa Hokkinen, SirpaHartikainen
Type: Research Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes also visual dysfunction including decreased visual acuity, even already at the prodromal phase of disease. Still, it has been suggested that persons with PD may be less likely to be referred for cataract surgery, although early management increases the chances for successful cataract surgery.
Data from nationwide register-based Finnish Study on Parkinson's Disease (N=22189) was used. This study included 17546 persons with PD diagnosed in 1996-2015 and 114817 comparison persons who were at least 45 years old. Comparison persons were matched for age (+/-1 year, sex and hospital district on the date of PD diagnosis (index date). Incidence of cataract surgeries was investigated from ten years before to ten years after the index date. Information on cataract surgeries and comorbidities were extracted from several nationwide healthcare registers.
The incidence rate of cataract surgeries was 20.4/1000 and 18.7/1000 person-years (PY) for persons with or without PD, respectively. Before PD diagnosis, rate of surgeries was higher in persons with PD (incidence rate 16.5 vs 13.7 /1000PY, IRR, 95%CI 1.21, 1.16-1.26). After PD diagnosis there was no difference in the incidence rate. Persons who had undergone cataract surgery were older and had more eye diseases and other comorbidities compared to those without surgery.
Diagnosis of PD does not decrease the incidence of cataract surgeries. Conversely, the incidence may be increased prior to PD diagnosis, probably due to other eye diseases and prodromal symptoms of PD.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2022.104842
Title: PET imaging in animal models of Parkinson's disease
Authors: Ruiqing Ni
Type: Research Article
Alpha-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, are characterized by aberrant accumulation of alpha-synuclein and synaptic dysfunction leading to motor and cognitive deficits. Animal models of alpha-synucleinopathy have greatly facilitated the mechanistic understanding of the disease and the development of therapeutics. Various transgenic, alpha-synuclein fibril-injected, and toxin-injected animal models of Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy that recapitulate the disease pathology have been developed and widely used. Recent advances in positron emission tomography have allowed the noninvasive visualization of molecular alterations, underpinning behavioral dysfunctions in the brains of animal models and the longitudinal monitoring of treatment effects. Imaging studies in these disease animal models have employed multi-tracer PET designs to reveal dopaminergic deficits together with other molecular alterations. This review focuses on the development of new positron emission tomography tracers and studies of alpha-synuclein, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A neurotransmitter receptor deficits such as dopaminergic receptor, dopaminergic transporter, serotonergic receptor, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, hypometabolism, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. The outstanding challenges and emerging applications are outlined, such as investigating the gut-brain-axis by using positron emission tomography in animal models, and provide a future outlook.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2022.114174
Title: Molecular dynamics method for targeting α-synuclein aggregation induced Parkinson's disease using boron nitride nanostructures
Authors: Kamel Smida, M. A. Albedah, Rzgar Farooq Rashid, Abdel-Rahman Al-Qawasmi
Type: Research Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a brain disorder connected with the abnormal aggregation and disposition of α-synuclein proteins. It has been suggested that nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to treat PD by inhibiting the formation of amyloids. In this study, boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) and boron nitride nanolayer (BNNL) were studied as inhibitor of α-synuclein protein aggregation. The interactions of α-synuclein and BN nanostructures have been simulated using molecular dynamics. Due to the tunable properties of boron-nitride structures, these structures can be designed and optimized for the treatment of PD using molecular simulations. To evaluate the effects of NPs, the interaction energies, compactness, and durability of α-synuclein protein in the attendance of NPs were investigated by atomistic analyzes. The results show that BN nanostructures destabilize α-synuclein by changing the structure of it. As a result, the interaction of amyloid with each other and their aggregation in the presence of nanostructures is weakened. Regarding the results, hexagonal two-dimensional (2D) structures, such as BNNL, are highly capable of causing structural conversions in a α-synuclein protein. The computational studies of this work would offer interesting implications for the use of BN nanostructures in the treatment of PD.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enganabound.2022.10.016
Title: Feruloylated oligosaccharides ameliorate MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in mice by activating ERK/CREB/BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway
Authors: Yiru Ding, Meiyu Zhou, Ruoyin Zheng, Ruijia Ma, Jialin Deng, Wen-zhi Hao, Lu Wang, Ji-chun Zhang, Chi-tang Ho, Jun-qing Huang
Type: Research Article
Feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) are natural esterification products of ferulic acid and oligosaccharides.
In this study, we examined whether FOs contribute to the ensured survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and inhibition of neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD).
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into mice to establish a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. FOs (15 and 30 mg/kg) were orally administered daily to the MPTP-treated mice. The rotarod test, balance beam test, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and western blot analyses were performed to examine the neuroprotective effects of FOs on MPTP-treated mice.
Our study indicated that FOs increased the survival of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the MPTP-treated mice. The neuroprotective effects of FOs were accompanied by inhibited glial activation and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. The mechanistic experiments revealed that the neuroprotective effects of FOs might be mediated through the activation of the ERK/CREB/BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway.
This study provides new insights into the mechanism underlying the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of phytochemicals and may facilitate the development of dietary supplements for PD patients. Our results indicate that FOs can be used as potential modulators for the prevention and treatment of PD.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154512
Title: Traditional Chinese medicine Pingchan granule for motor symptoms and functions in Parkinson's disease: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Authors: Si-Chun Gu, Rong Shi, Chen Gaoag, Xiao-Lei Yuan, You Wu, Yu Zhang, Chang De Wang, Rui-Dong Fan, Xiqun Chen, Can-Xing Yuan, QingYe
Type: Research Article
Pingchan granule (PCG) is a traditional Chinese medicine for Parkinson's disease (PD).
This was the first study aiming to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PCG for motor symptoms, gait impairments and quality of life in PD.
Study Design and Methods
In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 292 participants were included and followed for 9 months, randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive PCG or placebo. The primary outcome was the severity of motor symptoms assessed by Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Rating Scale III (MDS-UPDRS-III) motor score. Secondary outcomes included timed up and go test (TUG), functional gait assessment (FGA), freezing of gait (FOG), and quality of life assessed by Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). Assessments were done at baseline (T0), 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2) and 9 months (T3). Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-INR-1,701,194.
Generalized estimating equation analyses revealed that PCG group had significantly better improvement in MDS-UPDRS-III motor score than placebo group, as well as its domain scores of axial symptoms, bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. Improvements of TUG time, FGA, FOG questionnaire (FOGQ), and PDQ39 scores were also observed.
PCG had a long-lasting efficacy for motor symptoms and function in PD with good tolerance, supporting that PCG might be a viable alternative in the management of PD.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154497