1. Sianos G, Werner GS, Galassi AR, Papafaklis MI, Escaned J, et al. Recanalisation of chronic total coronary occlusions: 2012 consensus document from the Euro CTO club. EuroIntervention 2012;8:139-45.

2. Anderson HV, Shaw RE, Brindis RG, Hewitt K, Krone RJ, et al. A contemporary overview of percutaneous coronary interventions. The american college of cardiology-national cardiovascular data registry (ACC-NCDR). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1096-103.

3. Williams DO, Holubkov R, Yeh W, Bourassa MG, Al-Bassam M, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention in the current era compared with 1985-1986: the national heart, lung, and blood institute registries. Circulation 2000;102:2945-51.

4. Suero JA, Marso SP, Jones PG, Laster SB, Huber KC, et al. Procedural outcomes and long-term survival among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention of a chronic total occlusion in native coronary arteries: a 20-year experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:409-14.

5. Galassi AR, Boukhris M, Toma A, Elhadj Z, Laroussi L, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusions in patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017;10:2158-70.

6. Jang WJ, Yang JH, Choi SH, Song YB, Hahn JY, et al. Long-term survival benefit of revascularization compared with medical therapy in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion and well-developed collateral circulation. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015;8:271-9.

7. Henriques JP, Hoebers LP, Ramunddal T, Laanmets P, Eriksen E, et al. Percutaneous intervention for concurrent chronic total occlusions in patients with STEMI: the EXPLORE trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;68:1622-32.

8. Mashayekhi K, Nührenberg TG, Toma A, Gick M, Ferenc M, et al. A randomized trial to assess regional left ventricular function after stent implantation in chronic total occlusion: the REVASC trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018;11:1982-91.

9. Werner GS, Martin-Yuste V, Hildick-Smith D, Boudou N, Sianos G, et al. A randomized multicentre trial to compare revascularization with optimal medical therapy for the treatment of chronic total coronary occlusions. Eur Heart J 2018;39:2484-93.

10. Walsh S on the behalf of Consistent CTO Investigators. CONventional antegrade vs. Sub-Intimal SYNERGY sTENTing in Chronic Total Occlusions. EuroPCR 2018. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2019].

11. Galassi AR, Tomasello SD, Reifart N, Werner GS, Sianos G, et al. In-hospital outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with chronic total occlusion: insights from the ERCTO (European Registry of Chronic Total Occlusion) registry. EuroIntervention 2011;7:472-9.

12. Thompson CA, Jayne JE, Robb JF, Friedman BJ, Kaplan AV, et al. Retrograde techniques and the impact of operator volume on percutaneous intervention for coronary chronic total occlusions an early U.S. experience. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2009;2:834-42.

13. Wilson WM, Walsh SJ, Yan AT, Hanratty CG, Bagnall AJ, et al. Hybrid approach improves success of chronic total occlusion angioplasty. Heart 2016;102:1486-93.

14. Maeremans J, Spratt JC, Knaapen P, Walsh S, Agostoni P, et al. Towards a contemporary, comprehensive scoring system for determining technical outcomes of hybrid percutaneous chronic total occlusion treatment: The RECHARGE score. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018;91:192-202.

15. Christopoulos G, Kandzari DE, Yeh RW, Jaffer FA, Karmpaliotis D, et al. Development and validation of a novel scoring system for predicting technical success of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary interventions: The PROGRESS CTO (Prospective Global Registry for the Study of Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention) Score. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2016;9:1-9.

16. Smith SC Jr, Dove JT, Jacobs AK, Kennedy JW, Kereiakes D, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines of percutaneous coronary interventions (revision of the 1993 PTCA guidelines)-executive summary. A report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines (committee to revise the 1993 guidelines for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:2215-39.

17. Morino Y, Abe M, Morimoto T, Kimura T, Hayashi Y, et al. Predicting successful guidewire crossing through chronic total occlusion of native coronary lesions within 30 minutes: the J-CTO (Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan) score as a difficulty grading and time assessment tool. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2011;4:213-21.

18. Jolly SS, Yusuf S, Cairns J, Niemelä K, Xavier D, et al. Radial versus femoral access for coronary angiography and intervention in patients with acute coronary syndromes (RIVAL): a randomised, parallel group, multicentre trial. Lancet 2011;377:1409-20.

19. Burzotta F, Trani C, Tommasino A, Giammarinaro M, De Vita M, et al. Radial approach for CTO lesions: acute, long term results and impact of learning curve. EuroInteventions 2011;7:260.

20. Mamas MA, Fath-Ordoubadi F, Fraser DG. Distal stent delivery with GuideLiner catheter: first in man experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010;76:102-11.

21. Fujita S, Tamai H, Kyo E, Kosuga K, Hata T, et al. New technique for superior guiding catheter support during advancement of a balloon in coronary angioplasty: the anchor technique. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2003;59:482-8.

22. Ali M, Yagoub H, Ibrahim A, Ahmed M, Ibrahim M, et al. Anchor-balloon technique to facilitate stent delivery via the GuideLiner cathter in percutaneous coronary interventions. Future Cardiol 2018;14:291-9.

23. Oreglia JA, Garbo R, Gagnor A, Gasparini GL. Dual lumen microcatheters for complex percutaneous coronary interventions. Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2018;19:298-305.

24. Patel SM, Pokala NR, Menon RV, Kotsia AP, Raja V, et al. Prevalence and treatment of “balloon-uncrossable” coronary chronic total occlusions. J Invasive Cardiol 2015;27:78-84.

25. Brinton TJ. Lithoplasty for treatment of calcified coronary disease the results of the DISRUPT CAD study. EuroPCR 2017.

26. Picano E, Vano E, Rehani MM, Cuocolo A, Mont L, et al. The appropriate and justified use of medical radiation in cardiovascular imaging: A position document of the ESC associations of cardiovascular imaging, percutaneous cardiovascular interventions and electrophysiology. Eur Heart J 2014;35:665-72.

27. Brilakis ES, Banerjee S, Karmpaliotis D, Lombardi WL, Tsai TT, et al. Procedural outcomes of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: a report from the NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry). JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015;8:245-53.

28. Giannini F, Candilio L, Mitomo S, Ruparelia N, Chieffo A, et al. A practical approach to the management of complications during percutaneous coronary intervention. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018;11:1797-810.

29. Stankovic G, Orlic D, Corvaja N, Airoldi F, Chieffo A, et al. Incidence, predictors, in-hospital, and late outcomes of coronary artery perforations. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:213-6.

30. Ellis SG, Ajluni S, Arnold AZ, Popma JJ, Bittl JA, et al. Increased coronary perforation in the new device era. Incidence, classification, management, and outcome. Circulation 1994;90:2725-30.

31. Garbo R, Oreglia JA, Gasparini GL. The Balloon-Microcatheter technique for treatment of coronary artery perforations. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2017;89:E75-83.

Vessel Plus
ISSN 2574-1209 (Online)
Follow Us


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: