1. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel R, Torre L, et al. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence of and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. Ca Cancer J Clin 2018;68:394-424.

2. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer facts and figures 2017-2018. Available from: [Last accessed on 23 Dec 2018].

3. Tandra P, Kallam A, Krishnamurthy J. Identification and management of lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. J Oncol Pract 2019;5:255-62.

4. DiSipio T, Rye S, Newman B, Hayes S. Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:500-15.

5. Erickson VS, Pearson MI, Ganz PA, Adams J, Kahn KL. Arm edema in breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:96-111.

6. Lee TS, Kilbreath SL, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Beith JM. Prognosis of the upper limb following surgery and radiation for breast cancer:11. Lymphedema. CMAJ. 2001;164:191-9. Available from: [Last accessed on 15 Dec 2018].

7. Mortimer PS, Rockson SG. New developments in clinical aspects of lymphatic disease. J Clin Invest 2014;124:915-21.

8. Garza R 3rd, Skoracki R, Hock K, Povoski S. A comprehensive overview on the surgical management of secondary lymphedema of the upper and lower extremities related to prior oncologic therapies. BMC Cancer 2017;17:468-85.

9. Grada AA, Philips TJ. Lymphedema: pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017;77:1009-20.

10. Warren AG, Brorson H, Borud LJ, Slavin AS. Lympedema: a comprehensive review. Ann Plast Surg 2007;59:464-72.

11. Rockson SG. Lymphedema. Am J Med 2001;110:288-95.

12. Damstra RJ, Halk A. The Dutch lymphedema guidelines based on the international classification of functioning, disability, and health and the chronic care model. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2017;5:756-65.

13. Petrek JA, Senie RT, Peters M, Rosen PP. Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis. Cancer 2001;92:1368-77.

14. Querci della Rovere G, Ahmad I, Singh P, Ashley S, Daniels IR, et al. An audit of the incidence of arm lymphoedema after prophylactic level I/II axillary dissection without division of the pectoralis minor muscle. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2003;85:158-61.

15. Ozaslan C, Kuru B. Lymphedema after treatment of breast cancer. Am J Surg 2004;187:69-72.

16. Hinrichs CS, Watroba NL, Rezaishiraz H, Giese W, Hurd T, et al. Lymphedema secondary to postmastectomy radiation: incidence and risk factors. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11:573-80.

17. Coen JJ, Taghian AG, Kachnic LA, Assaad SI, Powell SN. Risk of lymphedema after regional nodal irradiation with breast conservation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:1209-15.

18. Werner RS, McCormick B, Petrek J, Cox L, Cirrincione C, et al. Arm edema in conservatively managed breast cancer: obesity is a major predictive factor. Radiology 1991;180:177-84.

19. Rivere AE, Klimberg VS. Lymphedema in the postmastectomy patient: pathophysiology, prevention, and management. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM, Klimberg VS, Gradishar WJ, editors. The Breast: Comprehensive management of benign and malignant disease. Philadelphia: Elselvier; 2018. pp. 514-30.

20. Purushotham AD, Upponi S, Klevasath MB, Bobrow L, Millar K, et al. Morbidity after sentinel lymph node biopsy in primary breast cancer: results from a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4312-21.

21. Larson D, Weinstein M, Goldberg I, Silver B, Recht A, et al. Edema of the arm as a function of the extent of axillary surgery in patients with stage I-II carcinoma of the breast treated with primary radiotherapy. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1986;12:1575-82.

22. Shaitelman SF, Cromwell KD, Rasmussen JC, Stout NL, Armer JM, et al. Recent pro¬gress in the treatment and prevention of cancer-related lymph¬edema. CA Cancer 2015;65:55-81.

23. Hayes SC, Janda M, Cornish B, Battistutta D, Newman B. Lymph¬edema after breast cancer: incidence, risk factors and effect of upper body. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3536-42.

24. Albert US, Koller M, Kopp I, Lorenz W, Schulz KD, et al. Early self-reported impairments in arm functioning of primary breast cancer patients predict late side effects of axillary lymph node dissection: results from a population-based cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2006;100:285-92.

25. Deutsch M, Land S, Begovic M, Sharif S. The incidence of arm edema in women with breast cancer randomized on the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project study B-04 to radical mastectomy versus total mastectomy and radiotherapy versus total mastectomy alone. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;70:1020-1024.

26. Mansel RE, Fallowfield L, Kissin M, Goyal A, Newcombe RG, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy versus standard axillary treatment in operable breast cancer: The ALMANAC Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:599-609.

27. Ashikaga T, Krag DN, Land SR, Julian TB, Anderson SJ, et al. Morbidity results from the NSABP B-32 trial comparing sentinel lymph node dissection versus axillary dissection. J Surg Oncol 2010;102:111-118.

28. Wilke LG, McCall LM, Posther KE, Whitworth PW, Reintgen DS, et al. Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy: results from a pro-spective international cooperative group trial. Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13:491-500.

29. Haid A, Koberle-Wuhrer R, Knauer M, Burtscher J, Fritzsche H, et al. Morbidity of breast cancer patients following complete axillary dissection or sentinel node biopsy only: a comparative evaluation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002;73:31-36.

30. Blanchard DK, Donohue JH, Reynolds C, Grant CMD. Relapse and morbidity in patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy alone or with axillary dissection for breast cancer. Arch Surg 2003;138:482-488.

31. Ronka R, Smitten K, Tasmuth T, Leidenius M. One-year mor¬bidity after sentinel node biopsy and breast surgery. Breast 2005;14:28-36.

32. Francis WP, Abghari P, Du W, Rymal C, Suna M, et al. Improving surgical outcomes: standardizing the reporting of incidence and severity of acute lymphedema after sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary lymph node dissection. Am J Surg 2006;192:636-9.

33. Lucci A, McCall LM, Beitsch PD, Whitworth PW, Reintgen DS, et al; American College of Surgeons Oncology Group. Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) plus axillary lymph node dissection compared with SLND alone in the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0011. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:3657-63.

34. Langer I, Guller U, Berclaz G, Koechli OR, Schaer G, et al. Morbidity of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLN) alone versus SLN and completion axillary lymph node dissection after breast cancer surgery: a prospective Swiss multi-center study on 659 patients. Ann Surg 2007;245:452-61.

35. McLaughlin SA, Wright MJ, Morris KT, Sampson MR, Brockway JP, et al. Prevalence of lymph¬edema in women with breast cancer 5 years after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection: patient perceptions and precau¬tionary behaviors. Clin Oncol 2008;10:5220-56.

36. Sagen A, Kaaresen R, Sandvik L, Thune I, Risberg MA. Upper limb physical function and adverse effects after breast cancer surgery: a prospective 2.5-year follow-up study and preoperative measures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:875-81.

37. Sackey H, Magnuson A, Sandelin K, Liljegren G, Bergkvist L, et al. Arm lymphoedema after axillary surgery in women with invasive breast cancer. Br J Surg 2014;101:390-7.

38. Thompson M, Kororuian S, Henry-Tillman R, Adkins L, Mumford S, et al. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM): a new concept to identify and enhance lymphatic preservation. Ann Surg Oncol 2007;14:1890-15.

39. Boneti C, Korourian S, Bland K, Cox K, Adkins LL, et al. Axillary reverse mapping: mapping and preserving arm lymphatics may be important in preventing lymphedema during sentinel node biopsy. J Am Coll Surg 2009;206:1038-42.

40. Tummel E, Ochoa D, Korourian S, Betzold R, Adkins L, et al. Does Axillary Reverse Mapping Prevent Lymphedema After Lymphadenectomy? Ann Surg 2017;265:987-92.

41. Kiel KD, Rademacker AW. Early stage breast cancer: arm edema after wide excision and breast irradiation. Radiology 1996;198:279-83.

42. Johansen J, Overgaard J, Blichert-Toft M, Overgaard M. Treatment morbidity associated with the management of the axilla in breast-conserving therapy. Acta Oncol 2000;39:349-54.

43. Donker M, van Tienhoven G, Straver ME, Meijnen P, van de Velde CJ, et al. Radiotherapy or surgery of the axilla after a positive sentinel node in breast cancer (EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS): a randomised, mul¬ticentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15:1303-10.

44. Whelan TJ, Olivotto IA, Parulekar WR, Ackerman I, Chua BH, et al. Regional nodal irra¬diation in early-stage breast cancer. NCIC-CTG MA.20 107107. N Engl J Med 2015;373:307-16.

45. Kissin M, Querci Della Rovere G, Easton D, Westbury G. Risk of lymphedema following treatment of breast cancer. Br J Surg 1986;73:580-4.

46. Kwan W, Jackson J, Weir LM, Dingee C, McGregor G, et al. Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: Prevalence and impact on quality of life. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:4242-8.

47. Silberman H. Axillary lymphadenectomy for breast-cancer: impact on survival. In: Silberman H, Silberman AW, editors. Surgical Oncology: Multidisciplinary Approach to Difficult Problems. London: Arnold; 2002. pp. 369-85.

48. Kilbreath SL, Refshauge KM, Beith JM, Ward LC, Ung OA, et al. Risk factors for lymphoedema in women with breast cancer: A large prospective cohort. Breast 2016;28:29-36.

49. Kim M, Kim SW, Lee SU, Lee MK, Jung SY, et al. A model to estimate the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema: Combinations of treatment-related factors of the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013;86:498-503.

50. Ahmed RL, Schmitz KH, Prizment AE, Folsom AR. Risk factors for lymphedema in breast cancer survivors, the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011;130:981-91.

51. Jung SY, Shin KH, Kim M, Chung SH, Lee S, et al. Treatment factors affecting breast cancer-relatede lymphedema after systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy in stage II/III breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014;148:91-8.

52. Zhu W, Li D, Li X, Ren J, Chen W, et al. Association between adjuvant docetaxel-based chemotherapy and breast cancer-related lymphedema. Anticancer Drugs 2017;28:350-55.

53. Gillespie TC, Sayegh HE, Brunelle CL, Daniell KM, Taghian AG. Breast cancer-related lymphedema: risk factors, precautionary measures, and treatments. Gland Surg 2018;7:379-403.

54. Swaroop N, Ferguson CM, Horick NK, Skolny MN, Miller CL, et al. Impact of adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy on development of breast cancer-related lymphedema: results from a large prospective cohort. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015;151:393-403.

55. Specht MC, Miller CL, Skolny MN, Jammallo LS, O’Toole J, et al. Residual lymph node disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts an increased risk of lymphedema in node-positive breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2013;20:2835-41.

56. Crosby MA, Card A, Liu J, Lindstrom WA, Chang DW. Immediate breast reconstruction and lymphedema incidence. Plast Reconst Sug 2012;129:789e-95e.

57. Fu MR, Axelrod D, Guth A, Fletcher J, Qiu JM, et al. Patterns of obesity and lymph fluid level during the first year of breast cancer treatment: a prospective study. J Pers Med 2015;5:326-40.

58. Petrek JA, Senie RT, Peters M, Rosen PP. Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis. Cancer 2001;92:1368-77.

59. Helyer LK, Varnic M, Le LW, Leong W, McCready D. Obesity is a risk factor for developing postoperative lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Breast J 2010;16:48-54.

60. Ridner SH, Dietrich MS, Stewart BR, Armer JM. Body mass index and breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:853-7.

61. Vignes S, Arrault M, Dupuy A. Factors associated with increased breast cancer-related lymphedema volume. Acta Oncol 2007;46:1138-42.

62. Jammallo LS, Miller CL, Singer M, Horick NK, Skolny MN, et al. Impact of body mass index and weight fluctuation on lymphedema risk in patients treated for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2013;142:59-67.

63. Ryan TJ. Lymphatics and adipose tissue. Clin Dermatol 1995;13:493-8.

64. Smahel J. Adipose tissue in plastic surgery. Ann Plast Surg 1998;16:444-53.

65. Gaffney RM, Casley-Smith JR. Excess plasma proteins as a cause of chronic inflammation and lymphoedema: biochemical estimations. J Pathol 1981;133:229-42.

66. Executive Committee. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema: consensus document of the International Society of Lymphology. Lymphology 2016;49:170-84.

67. Campisi C, Boccardo F. Microsurgical techniques for lymphedema treatment: derivative lymphatic-venous microsurgery. World J Surg 2004;28:609-13.

68. Chang DW, Masia J, Garza R 3rd, Skoracki R, Neligan PC. Lymphedema: surgical and medical therapy. Plast Reconst Surg 2016;138:2095-185.

69. National Cancer Institute. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 (CTCAE). Available from: [Last accessed on 23 Dec 2018].

70. Weissleder H, Weissleder R. Lymphedema: evaluation of qualitative and quantitative lymphoscintigraphy in 238 patients. Radiology 1998;167:729-35.

71. Witte CL, Witte MH, Unger EC, Williams WH, Bernas MJ, et al. Advances in imaging of lymph flow disorders. Radiographics 2000;20:1697-719.

72. Francis WP, Abghari P, Du W, Rymal C, Suna M, et al. Improving surgical outcomes: standardizing the reporting of incidence and severity of acute lymphedema after sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary lymph node dissection. Am J Surg 2006;192:636-9.

73. Ridner SH, Montgomery LD, Hepworth JT, Stewart BR, Armer JM. Comparison of upper limb volume measurement techniques and arm symptoms between healthy volunteers and individuals with known lymphedema. Lymphology 2007;40:35-46.

74. Kyle UG, Bosaeus I, De Lorenzo AD, Deurenberg P, Elia M, et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I: review of principles and methods. Clinical Nutrition 2004;23:1226-43.

75. Jain MS, Danoff JV, Paul SM. Correlation between bioelectrical spectroscopy and perometry in assessment of upper extremity swelling. Lymphology 2010;43:85-94.

76. Warren AG, Janz BA, Slavin SA, Borud LJ. The use of bioimpedance analysis to evaluate lymphedema. Ann Plast Surg 2007;58:541-3.

77. Seward C, Skolny M, Brunelle C, Asdourian M, Salama L, et al. A comprehensive review of bioimpedance spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the detection and measurement of breast cancer-related lymphedema. J Surg Oncol 2016;114:537-42.

78. Shah C, Arthur DW, Wazer D, Khan A, Ridner S, et al. The impact of early detection and intervention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systemic review. Cancer Med 2016;5:1154-62.

79. Bicego D, Brown K, Ruddick M, Storey D, Wong C, et al. Exercise for women with or at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema. Phys Ther 2006;86:1398-405.

80. Petrek JA, Pressman PI, Smith RA. Lymphedema: current issues in research and management. CA Cancer J Clin 2000;50:292-307.

81. National Cancer Institute. Lymphedema (PDQ): health professional version. Available from: [Last accessed on 26 Dec 2018].

82. Sayegh HE, Asdourian MS, Swaroop MN, Brunelle CL, Skolny MN, et al. Diagnostic methods, risk factors, prevention, and management of breast cancer-related lymphedema: past, present, and future directions. Curr Breast Cancer Rep 2017;9:111-21.

83. Ancukiewicz M, Miller CL, Skolny MN, O’Toole J, Warren LE, et al. Comparison of relative versus absolute arm size change as criteria for quantifying breast-cancer related lymphedema: the flaws in current studies and need for universal methodology. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012;135:145-52.

84. Ancukiewicz M, Russell TA, O’Toole J, Specht M, Singer M, et al. A Standardized method for quantification of developing lymphedema in patients treated for breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;79:1436-43.

85. Miller CL, Specht MC, Horick N, Skolny MN, Jammallo LS, et al. A novel, validated method to quantify breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) following bilateral breast surgery. Lymphology 2013;46:64-74.

86. Specht MC, Miller CL, Russell TA, Horick N, Skolny MN, et al. Defining a threshold for intervention in breast cancer-related lymphedema: what level of arm volume increase predicts progression? Breast Cancer Res Treat 2013;140:485-94.

87. Monnin-Delhom ED, Gallix BP, Achard C, Briel JM, Janbon C. High resolution unenhanced computed tomography in patients with swollen legs. Lymphology 2002;35:121-8.

88. Hudson TM, Hamlin DJ, Enneking WF, Pettersson H. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone and soft tissue tumors: early experience in 31 patients compared with computed tomography. Skeletal Radiol 1985;13:134-46.

89. Case TC, Witte CL, Witte MH, Unger EC, Williams WH. Magnetic resonance imaging in human lymphedema: comparison with lymphoscintigraphy. Magn Reson Imaging 1992;10:549-58.

90. Dimakakos PB, Stefanopolous T, Antoniades P, Antoniou A, Gouliamos A, et al. MRI and ultrasonographic findings in the investigation of lymphedema and lipedema. Int Surg 1997;82:411-6.

91. Astrom KG, Abdsaleh S, Brenning GC, Ahlstrom KH. MR imaging of primary, secondary, and mixed forms of lymphedema. Acta Radiol 2001;42:409-16.

92. Struk S, Honart JF, Qassemyar Q, Leymarie N, Sarfati B, et al. Use of indocyanine green angioagraphy in oncological and reconstructive breast surgery. An Chir Plast Esthet 2018;63:54-61.

93. Burnier P, Niddam J, Bosc R, Hersant B, Meningaud JP. Indocyanine green applications in plastic surgery: a review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017;70:814-27.

94. Sorrentino L, Sartani A, Pietropaolo G, Bossi D, Mazzucchelli S, et al. A novel indocyanine green fluorescence-guided video-assisted technique for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. World J Surg 2018;42:2815-24.

95. Sugie T, Ikeda T, Kawaguchi A, Shimizu A, Toi M. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indocynanine green fluorescence in early-stage breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Oncol 2017;22:11-17.

96. Garza RM, Ooi ASH, Falk J, Chang DW. The relationship between clinical and indocyanine green staging in lymphedema. Lymphat Res Biol 2018;18.

97. Mihara M, Hara H, Araki J, Kikuchi K, Narushima M, et al. Indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography is superior to lymphoscintigraphy for diagnostic imaging of early lymphedema of the upper limbs. PLoS One 2012;7:e38182.

98. Narushima M, Yamamoto T, Ogata F, Yoshimatsu H, Mihara M, et al. Indocyanine green lymphography findings in limb lymphedema. J Reconstr Microsurg 2016;32:72-9.

99. Badger CM, Peacock JL, Mortimer PS. A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial comparing multilayer bandaging followed by hosiery versus hosiery alone in the treatment of patients with lymphedema of the limb. Cancer 2000;88:2832-7.

100. Mortimer PS. Swollen lower limb-2: lymphoedema. BMJ 2000;320:1527-9.

101. Brorson H, Svensson H. Liposuction combined with controlled compression therapy alone. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;102:1058-67.

102. Shao Y, Qi K, Zhou QH, Zhong DS. Intermittent pneumatic compression pump for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a sys¬tematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Oncol Res Treat 2014;37:170-4.

103. Földi E. The treatment of lymphedema. Cancer 1998;83:2833-4.

104. Vodder E. Lymph drainage ad modem Voder. Aesthet Med 1965;14:190-203.

105. McNeely ML, Magee DJ, Lees AW, Bagnall KM, Haykowsky M, et al. The addition of manual lymph drainage to compression therapy for breast cancer related lymphedema: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004;86:95-106.

106. Andersen L, Hojris I, Erlandsen M, Andersen J. Treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema with without manual lymphatic drainage: a randomized study. Acta Oncol 2000;39:399-405.

107. Didem K, Ufuk YS, Serdar S, Zumre A. The comparison of two different physiotherapy methods in treatment of lymphedema after breast surgery. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;93:49-54.

108. Lasinski BB. Complete decongestive therapy for treatment of lymphedema. Semin Oncol Nurs 2013;29:20-7.

109. Javid SH, Anderson BO. Mounting evidence against complex decongestive therapy as a first-line treatment for early lymphedema. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:3737-8.

110. Dayes IS, Whelan TJ, Julian JA, Parpia S, Pritchard KI, et al. Randomized trial of decon¬gestive lymphatic therapy for the treatment of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:3758-63.

111. Tidhar D, Drouin J, Shimony A. Aqua lymphatic therapy in managing lower extremity lymphedema. J Support Oncol 2007;5:179-83.

112. Tidhar D,  Katz-Leurer. Aqua lymphatic therapy in women who suffer from breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema: a randomized controlled study. Support Care Cancer 2010;18:383-92.

113. Yeung W, Semciw AI. Aquatic therapy for people with lymphedema: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Lymphat Res Biol 2018;16:9-19.

114. Piller NB. Conservative treatment of acute and chronic lymph¬edema with benzopyrones. Lymphology 1976;9:132-7.

115. Casley-Smith JR, Morgan R, Piller NB. Treatment of lymphedema of the arms and legs with 5,6-benzo-[alpha]-pyrone. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1158-63.

116. Casley-Smith JR. Modern treatment of lymphoedema. II. The ben¬opyrones. Australas J Dermatol 1992;33:69-74.

117. Badger C, Preston N, Seers K, Mortimer P. Benzo-pyrones for reducing and controlling lymphedema of the limbs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;CD003140.

118. Charles H. Elephantiasis of the leg. In: Latham A, English T, editors. A system of treatment. London: Churchill; 1912.

119. Campisi C, Bellini C, Campisi C, Accogli S, Bonioli E, et al. Microsurgery for lymph¬edema: clinical research and long-term results. Microsurgery 2010;30:256-60.

120. Campisi CC, Ryan M, Boccardo F, Campisi C. A single-site tech¬nique of multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses for the treatment of peripheral lymphedema: long-term clinical outcome. J Reconstr Microsurg 2016;32:42-9.

121. Weiss M, Baumeister RG, Hahn K. Post-therapeutic lymphedema: scintigraphy before and after autologous lymph vessel transplantation: 8 years of long-term follow-up. Clin Nucl Med 2002;27:788-92.

122. Hou C, Wu X, Jin X. Autologous bone marrow stomal cells trans¬plantation for the treatment of secondary arm lymphedema: a prospective controlled study in patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2008;38:670-4.

123. Gharb BB, Rampazzo A, Spanio di Spilimbergo S, Xu ES, Chung KP, et al. Vas¬cularized lymph node transfer based on the hilar perforators improves the outcome in upper limb lymphedema. Ann Plast Surg 2011;67:589-93.

124. Saaristo AM, Niemi TS, Viitanen TP, Tervala TV, Hartiala P, et al. Microvascular breast reconstruction and lymph node transfer for postmastectomy lymphedema patients. Ann Surg 2012;255:468-73.

125. Becker C, Assouad J, Riquet M, Hidden G. Postmastectomy lymphedema: long-term results following microsurgical lymph node transplantation. Ann Surg 2006;243:313-5.

126. Lin CH, Ali R, Chen SC, Wallace C, Chang YC, et al. Vascularized groin lymph node transfer using the wrist as a recipient site for management of post-mastectomy upper extremity lymphedema. Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;123:1265-75.

127. Dancey A, Nassimizadeh A, Nassimizadeh M, Warner RM, Waters R. A chimeric vascularized groin lymph node flap and DIEP flap for the management of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2013;66:735-7.

128. Patel KM, Manrique O, Sosin M, Hashmi MA, Poysophon P, et al. Lymphatic mapping and lymphedema surgery in the breast cancer patient. Gland Surg 2015;4:244-56.

129. Brorson H. Liposuction in Lymphedema Treatment. J Reconstr Microsurg 2016;32:56-65.

130. Qi F, Gu J, Shi Y, Yang Y. Treatment of upper limb lymphedema with combination of liposuction, myocutaneous flap transfer and lymph-fascia grafting: a preliminary study. Microsurgery 2009;29:29-34.

131. Damstra RJ, Voesten HG, Klinkert P, Brorson H. Circumferential suction-assisted lipectomy for lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer. Br J Surg 2009;96:859-64.

132. Schaverien MV, Munro KJ, Baker PA, Munnoch DA. Liposuction for chronic lymphedema of the upper limb: 5 years of experience. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012;65:935-42.

Journal of Unexplored Medical Data
ISSN 2572-8180 (Online)
Follow Us


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: