1. Lenders C, Gorman K, Milch H, Decker A, Harvey N, et al. A novel nutrition medicine education model: the Boston University experience. Adv Nutr 2013;4:1-7.

2. Murray CJ, Atkinson C, Bhalla K, Birbeck G, Burstein R, et al. The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. JAMA 2013;310:591-608.

3. McCarty MF. Mortality from Western cancers rose dramatically among African-Americans during the 20th century: are dietary animal products to blame? Medical hypotheses 2001;57:169-74.

4. McCarty MF. Insulin and IGF-I as determinants of low “Western” cancer rates in the rural third world. Int J Epidemiol 2004;33:908-10.

5. Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, et al. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol 2015;16:1599-600.

6. Inoue-Choi M, Sinha R, Gierach GL, Ward MH. Red and processed meat, nitrite, and heme iron intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Int J Cancer 2016;138:1609-18.

7. Larsson SC, Wolk A. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer 2006;119:2657-64.

8. Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P, Slimani N, Jenab M, et al. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:906-16.

9. Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jakobsen MU, Egeberg R, et al. Meat consumption and mortality--results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. BMC Med 2013;11:63.

10. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015.

11. Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017;57:3640-9.

12. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136:E359-86.

13. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer facts and figures 2017-2018. Available from: [Last accessed on 29 Oct 2018].

14. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015. p. 178.

15. Del Monte U. Does the cell number 10(9) really fit one gram of tumor tissue? Cell Cycle 2009;8:505-6.

16. Friberg S, Mattson S. On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making. J Surg Oncol 1997;65:284-97.

17. Philippe E, Le Gal Y. Growth of seventy-eight recurrent mammary cancers. Quantitative study. Cancer 1968;21:461-7.

18. Kuroishi T, Tominaga S, Morimoto T, Tashiro H, Itoh S, et al. Tumor growth rate and prognosis of breast cancer mainly detected by mass screening. Jpn J Cancer Res 1990;81:454-62.

19. Nielsen M, Thomsen JL, Primdahl S, Dyreborg U, Andersen JA. Breast cancer and atypia among young and middle-aged women: a study of 110 medicolegal autopsies. Br J Cancer 1987;56:814-9.

20. Sanders ME, Schuyler PA, Dupont WD, Page DL. The natural history of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in women treated by biopsy only revealed over 30 years of long-term follow-up. Cancer 2005;103:2481-4.

21. Soto AM, Brisken C, Schaeberle C, Sonnenschein C. Does cancer start in the womb? Altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2013;18:199-208.

22. American Institute for Cancer Research. Recommendations for cancer prevention. Available from: [Last accessed on 29 Oct 2018].

23. Hastert TA, Beresford SA, Patterson RE, Kristal AR, White E. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013;22:1498-508.

24. Barnard RJ, Gonzalez JH, Liva ME, Ngo TH. Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro. Nutr Cancer 2006;55:28-34.

25. Ngo TH, Barnard RJ, Tymchuk CN, Cohen P, Aronson WJ. Effect of diet and exercise on serum insulin, IGH-1, and IGFBP-1 levels and growth of LNCaP cells in vitro (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2002;13:929-35.

26. Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, et al. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1441-8.

27. Rowlands MA, Gunnell D, Harris R, Vatten LJ, Holly JM, et al. Circulating insulin-like growth factor peptides and prostate cancer risk: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2009;124:2416-29.

28. Soliman S, Aronson WJ, Barnard RJ. Analyzing serum-stimulated prostate cancer cell lines after low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise intervention. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:529053.

29. Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-I but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men. Br J Cancer 2000;83:95-7.

30. Widmark EMP. Presence of cancer-producing substances in roasted food. Nature 1939;143:984.

31. National Cancer Institute. Chemicals in meat cooked at high temperatures and cancer risk. Available from: [Last accessed on 29 Oct 2018].

32. Thiébaud HP, Knize MG, Kuzmicky PA, Hsieh DP, Felton JS. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork and a soy-based food. Food Chem Toxicol 1955;33:821-8.

33. Zheng W, Lee SA. Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2009;61:437-46.

34. Zaidi R, Kumar S, Rawat PR. Rapid detection and quantification of dietary mutagens in food using mass spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromography. Food Chem 2012;135:2897-903.

35. Shaughnessy DT, Gangarosa LM, Schliebe B, Umbach DM, Xu Z, et al. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt. PLoS One 2011;6:e18707.

36. Steck SE, Gaudet MM, Eng SM, Britton JA, Teitelbaum SL, et al. Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer--lifetime versus recent dietary intake. Epidemiology 2007;18:373-82.

37. Zheng W, Gustafson DR, Sinha R, Cerhan JR, Moore D, et al. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1724-9.

38. Rohrmann S, Lukas Jung SU, Linseisen J, Pfau W. Dietary intake of meat and meat-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines and their correlation with DNA adducts in female breast tissue. Mutagenesis 2009;24:127-32.

39. Lauber SN, Ali S, Gooderham NJ. The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis 2004;25:2509-17.

40. DeBruin LS, Martos PA, Josephy PD. Detection of PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the milk of healthy women. Chem Res Toxicol 2001;14:1523-8.

41. Grose KR, Grant JL, Bjeldanes LF, Andresen BD, Healy SK, et al. Isolation of the carcinogen IQ from fried egg patties. J Agric Food Chem 1986;34:201-2.

42. Maunsell E, Drolet M, Brisson J, Robert J, Deschênes L. Dietary change after breast cancer: extent, predictors, and relation with psychological distress. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1017-25.

43. Pierce JP, Stefanick ML, Flatt SW, Natarajan L, Sternfeld B, et al. Greater survival after breast cancer in physically active women with high vegetable-fruit intake regardless of obesity. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:2345-51.

44. Li Q, Holford TR, Zhang Y, Boyle P, Mayne ST, et al. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status. Eur J Nutr 2013;52:217-23.

45. Howe GR, Hirohata T, Hislop TG, Iscovich JM, Yuan JM, et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:561-9.

46. Dong JY, He K, Wang P, Qin LQ. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:900-5.

47. Aune D, Chan DS, Greenwood DC, Vieira AR, Rosenblatt DA, et al. Dietary fiber and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol 2012;23:1394-402.

48. Clemens R, Kranz S, Mobley AR, Nicklas TA, Raimondi MP, et al. Filling America’s fiber intake gap: summary of a roundtable to probe realistic solutions with a focus on grain-based foods. J Nutr 2012;142:1390S-401S.

49. Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Fraser GE. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113:1610-9.

50. Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:347-56.

51. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015. p. 191.

52. Murray S, Lake BG, Gray S, Edwards AJ, Springall C, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption on heterocyclic aromatic amine metabolism in man. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1413-20.

53. Thiébaud HP, Knize MG, Kuzmicky PA, Hsieh DP, Felton JS. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork, and soy-based food. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:821-8.

54. Goyal A, Sharma V, Upadhyay N, Gill S, Sihag M. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food. J Food Sci Technol 2014;51:1633-53.

55. Smeds AI, Eklund PC, Sjöholm RE, Willför SM, Nishibe S, et al. Quantification of a broad spectrum of lignans in cereals, oilseeds, and nuts. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1337-46.

56. Rosolowich V, Saettler E, Szuck B; Breast Disease Committee. Mastalgia. J Obstet Gynecol Can 2006;28:49-57.

57. Phipps WR, Martini MC, Lampe JW, Slavin JL, Kurzer MS. Effect of flax seed ingestion on the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;77:1215-9.

58. Knekt P, Adlercreutz H, Rissanen H, Aromaa A, Teppo L, et al. Does antibacterial treatment for urinary tract infection contribute to the risk of breast cancer? Br J Cancer 2000;82:1107-10.

59. Abarzua S, Serikawa T, Szewczyk M, Richter DU, Piechulla B, et al. Antiproliferative activity of lignans against the breast carcinoma cell lines MCF 7 and BT 20. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012;285:1145-51.

60. Fabian CJ, Kimler BF, Zalle CM, Klemp JR, Petroff BK, et al. Reduction in Ki-67 in benign breast tissue of high-risk women with the lignan secoisolariciresinil diglycoside (SDG). Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010;3:1342-50.

61. Buck K, Vrieling A, Zaineddin AK, Becker S, Hüsing A, et al. Serum enterolactone and prognosis of postmenopausal breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:3730-8.

62. Guglielmini P, Rubagotti A, Boccardo F. Serum enterolactone levels and mortality outcome in women with early breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012;132:661-8.

63. McCann SE, Thompson LU, Nie J, Dorn J, Trevisan M, et al. Dietary Lignan intakes in relation to survival among women with breast cancer: the Western New York exposures and breast cancer (WEB) study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010;122:229-35.

64. Åberg UW, Saarinen N, Abrahamsson A, Nurmi T, Engblom S, et al. Tamoxifen and flaxseed alter angiogenesis regulators in normal human breast tissue in vivo. PLoS One 2011;6:e25720.

65. Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, Strasser-Weippl K, Goss PE. Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:3828-35.

66. Parkin DM, Fernández LM. Use of statistics to assess the global burden of breast cancer. Breast J 2006;12:S70-80.

67. Wu AH, Butler LM. Green tea and breast cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55:921-30.

68. Singh M, Vijay B, Kamal S, Wakchaure GC. Production and marketing of mushrooms: global and national scenario. In: Singh M, Vijay B, Kamal S, Wakchaure GC, editors. Mushrooms: cultivation, marketing and consumption. India: Directorate of Mushroom Research; 2014. pp. 15-22.

69. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015. pp. 196-7.

70. Korde LA, Wu AH, Fears T, Nomura AM, West DW, et al. Childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:1050-9.

71. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015. p. 195.

72. Mueller SO, Simon S, Chae K, Metzler M, Korach KS. Phytoestrogens and their human metabolites show distinct agonistic and antagonistic properties on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta in human cells. Toxicol Sci 2004;80:14-25.

73. Oseni T, Patel R, Pyle J, Jordan VC. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens. Planta Med 2008;74:1656-65.

74. Nagata C, Mizoue T, Tanaka K, Tsuji I, Tamakoshi A, et al. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systemic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2014;44:282-95.

75. Chen MN, Lin CC, Liu CF. Efficacy of phytoestrogens for menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Climacteric 2015;18:260-9.

76. Chi F, Wu R, Zeng YC, Xing R, Liu Y, et al. Post-diagnosis soy food intake and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:2407-12.

77. Kang HB, Zhang YF, Yang JD, Lu KL. Study on soy isoflavone consumption and risk of breast cancer and survival. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012;13:995-8.

78. USDA National Agricultural Library. USDA database for the isoflavone content of selected foods, release 2.0. Available from: [Last accessed on 29 Oct 2018].

79. Nechuta SJ, Caan BJ, Chen WY, Lu W, Chen Z, et al. Soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: an in-depth analysis of combined evidence from cohort studies of US and Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:123-32.

80. Bosviel R, Dumollard E, Déchelotte P, Bignon YJ, Bernard-Gallon D. Can soy phytoestrogens decrease DNA methylation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 oncosuppressor genes in breast cancer? OMICS 2012;16:235-44.

81. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Family history, age, and risk of breast cancer. Prospective data from the nurses’ health study. JAMA 1993;270:338-43.

82. Bal A, Verma S, Joshi K, Singla A, Thakur R, et al. BRCA1-methylated sporadic breast cancers are BRCA-like in showing a basal phenotype and absence of ER expression. Virchows Arch 2012;461:305-12.

83. Magee PJ, Rowland I. Soy products in the management of breast cancer. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15:586-91.

84. National Cancer Institute. Cancer statistics. Available from: [Last accessed on 30 Oct 2018].

85. Jahn JL, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era. Int J Cancer 2015;137:2795-802.

86. Greger M, Stone G. How not to die. 1th ed. New York: Macmillan Audio; 2015. p. 213.

87. Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Pediatr Int 2010;52:33-8.

88. Danby FW. Acne and milk, the diet myth, and beyond. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:360-2.

89. Afeiche M, Williams PL, Mendiola J, Gaskins AJ, Jørgensen N, et al. Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men. Hum Reprod 2013;28:2265-75.

90. Steinman G. Mechanisms of twinning: VII. Effect of diet and heredity on the human twinning rate. J Reprod Med 2006;51:405-10.

91. Melnik BC, John SM, Schmitz G. Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth. Nutr J 2013;12:103.

92. Ludwig DS, Willett WC. Three daily servings of reduced-fat milk: an evidence-based recommendation? JAMA Pediaatr 2013;167:788-9.

93. Tate PL, Bibb R, Larcom LL. Milk stimulated growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. Nutr Cancr 2011;63:1361-6.

94. Ganmaa D, Li XM, Qin LQ, Wang PY, Takeda M, et al. The experience of Japan as a clue to the etiology of testicular and prostatic cancers. Med Hypotheses 2003;60:724-30.

95. Ganmaa D, Li XM, Wang J, Qin LQ, Wang PY, et al. Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices. Int J Cancer 2002;98:262-7.

96. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K, et al. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer 2004;48:22-7.

97. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Tong J, Hoshi K. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16:467-76.

98. Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;101:87-117.

99. Epstein SS. Unlabeled milk from cows treated with biosynthetic growth hormones: a case of regulatory abdication. Int J Health Serv 1996;26:173-85.

100. Cui X, Wang L, Zuo P, Han Z, Fang Z, et al. D-galactose-caused life shortening in drosophilia melanogaster and musca domestica is associated with oxidative stress. Biogerontology 2004;5:317-25.

101. Cui X, Zuo P, Zhang Q, Li X, Hu Y, et al. Chronic systemic D-galactose exposure induces memory loss, neurodegeneration, and oxidative damage in mice: protective effects of R-alpha-lipoic acid. J Neurosci Res 2006;84:647-54.

102. Michaëlsson K, Wolk A, Langenskiöld S, Basu S, Warensjö Lemming E, et al. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. BMJ 2014;349:g6015.

103. Schooling CM. Milk and mortality. BMJ 2014;349:g6205.

104. Richman EL, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Broering JM, Carroll PR, et al. Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:712-21.

105. Tang WH, Wang Z, Levison BS, Koeth RA, Britt EB, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Eng J Med 2013;368:1575-84.

106. Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med 2013;19:576-85.

107. Johansson M, Van Guelpen B, Vollset SE, Hultdin J, Bergh A, et al. One-carbon metabolism and prostate cancer risk: prospective investigation of seven circulating B vitamins and metabolites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:1538-43.

108. Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Chan JM. Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011;4:2110-21.

109. Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, Marlin R, Pettengill EB, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol 2005;174:1065-9.

110. Barnard RJ, Gonzalez JH, Liva ME, Ngo TH. Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro. Nutr Cancer 2006;55:28-34.

111. Barnard RJ, Ngo TH, Leung PS, Aronson WJ, Golding LA. A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Prostate 2003;56:201-6.

112. Ornish D, Magbanua MJ, Weidner G, Weinberg V, Kemp C, et al. Changes in prostate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:8369-74.

113. Frattaroli J, Weidner G, Dnistrian AM, Kemp C, Daubenmier JJ, et al. Clinical events in prostate cancer lifestyle trial: results from two years of follow-up. Urology 2008;72:1319-23.

114. Carmody JF, Olendzki BC, Merriam PA, Liu Q, Qiao Y, et al. A novel measure of dietary change in a prostate cancer dietary program incorporating mindfulness training. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:1822-7.

115. van Die MD, Bone KM, Williams SG, Pirotta MV. Soy and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJU Int 2014;113:E119-30.

116. Morton MS, Chan PS, Cheng C, Blacklock N, Matos-Ferreira A, et al. Lignans and isoflavanoids in plasma and prostatic fluid in men: samples from Portugal, Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom. Prostate 1997;32:122-8.

117. Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, Robertson CN, Anderson EE, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathological features. Urology 2001;58:47-52.

118. Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, Polascik TJ, Paulson DF, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology 2004;63:900-4.

119. Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL, Switzer BR, Madden JF, et al. Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3577-87.

120. Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fan J, Sveen L, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:767-76.

121. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013;22:286-94.

122. Fraser GE. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California seventh-day adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:532s-8s.

123. Tantamango YM, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, Fraser G, Sabate J. Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study. Nutr Cancer 2011;63:565-72.

124. Wu L, Wang Z, Zhu J, Murad AL, Prokop LJ, et al. Nut consumption and risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev 2015;73:409-25.

125. Zhu B, Sun Y, Qi L, Zhong R, Miao X. Dietary legume consumption reduces risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Sci Rep 2015;5:8797.

126. Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 2011;343:d6617.

127. Aune D, Lau R, Chan DS, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, et al. Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Gastroenterology 2011;141:106-18.

128. Pan P, Yu J, Wang LS. Colon cancer: what we eat. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2018;27:243-67.

129. Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, Knüppel S, Laure Preterre A, et al. Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 2018;142:1748-58.

130. Tabung FK, Brown LS, Fung TT. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a review of 17 years of evidence (2000-2016). Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep 2017;13:440-54.

131. Tantamango YM, Knutsen SF, Beeson L, Fraser G, Sabate J. Association between dietary fiber and incident cases of colon polyps: the adventist health study. Gastrointest Cancer Res 2011;4:161-7.

132. Chen GC, Pang Z, Liu QF. Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:1182-6.

133. van den Brandt PA, Smits KM, Goldbohm RA, Weijenberg MP. Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands cohort study. Br J Cancer 2007;96:510-3.

134. Chikara S, Nagaprashantha LD, Singhal J, Horne D, Awasthi S, et al. Oxidative stress and dietary phytochemicals: role in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer Lett 2018;413:122-34.

135. Divisi D, Di Tommaso S, Salvemini S, Garramone M, Crisci R. Diet and cancer. Acta Biomed 2006;77:118-23.

136. Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 1975;15:617-31.

137. Bostick RM, Potter JD, Kushi LH, Sellers TA, Steinmetz KA, et al. Sugar, meat, and fat intake, and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994;5:38-52.

138. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, et al. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994;54:2390-7.

139. Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van ‘t Veer P, Brants HA, Dorant E, et al. A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Res 1994;54:718-23.

140. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1664-72.

141. Le Marchand L, Donlon T, Seifried A, Wilkens LR. Red meat intake, CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1019-24.

142. Lee DH, Anderson KE, Harnack LJ, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR Jr. Heme iron, zinc, alcohol consumption, and colon cancer: Iowa women’s health study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:403-7.

143. Murtaugh MA, Ma KN, Sweeney C, Caan BJ, Slattery ML, et al. Meat consumption patterns and preparation, genetic variants of metabolic enzymes, and their association with rectal cancer in men and women. J Nutr 2004;134:776-84.

144. Crespo-Sanjuán J, Calvo-Nieves MD, Aguirre-Gervás B, Herreros-Rodríguez J, Velayos-Jiménez B, et al. Early detection of high oxidative activity in patients with adenomatous intestinal polyps and colorectal adenocarcinoma: myeloperoxidase and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in serum as new markers of oxidative stress in colorectal cancer. Lab Med 2015;46:123-35.

145. Lee SA, Shu XO, Yang G, Li H, Gao YT, et al. Animal origin foods and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai women’s health study. Nutr Cancer 2009;61:194-205.

146. Yao X, Tian Z. Dyslipidemia and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Causes Control 2015;26:257-68.

147. Van Blarigan EL, Meyerhardt JA. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:1825-34.

148. Bertuccio P, Rosato V, Andreano A, Ferraroni M, Decarli A, et al. Dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2013;24:1450-8.

149. Zhu H, Yang X, Zhang C, Zhu C, Tao G, et al. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies. PLoS One 2013;8:e70955.

150. Song P, Wu L, Guan W. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines intake and the risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Nutrients 2015;7:9872-95.

151. Lei Q, Zheng H, Bi J, Wang X, Jiang T, et al. Whole grain intake reduces pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e2747.

152. Taunk P, Hecht E, Stolzenberg-Solomon R. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort. Int J Cancer 2016;138:2172-89.

153. Wu QJ, Wu L, Zheng LQ, Xu X, Ji C, et al. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 2016;25:196-205.

154. Chih HJ, Lee AH, Colville L, Binns CW, Xu D. A review of dietary prevention of human papillomavirus-related infection of the cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Nutr Cancer 2013;65:317-28.

155. Si CJ, Shu L, Zheng PF, Zhang XY, Yu XL, et al. Dietary patterns and endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev 2017;26:336-45.

156. McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Brasure JR, Swanson MK, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer in western New York (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:965-74.

157. Littman AJ, Beresford SA, White E. The association of dietary fat and plant foods with endometrial cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:691-702.

158. Blank MM, Wentzensen N, Murphy MA, Hollenbeck A, Park Y. Dietary fat intake and risk of ovarian cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Br J Cancer 2012;106:596-602.

159. Yang WS, Wong MY, Vogtmann E, Tang RQ, Xie L, et al. Meat consumption and risk of lung cancer: evidence from observational studies. Ann Oncol 2012;23:3163-70.

160. Vieira AR, Abar L, Vingeliene S, Chan DS, Aune D, et al. Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2016;27:81-96.

161. Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet 2016;116:1970-80.

162. Voortman T, van den Hooven EH, Tielemans MJ, Hofman A, Kiefte-de Jong JC, et al. Protein intake in early childhood and cardiometabolic health at school age: the generation R study. Eur J Nutr 2016;55:2117-27.

163. Voortman T, Braun KV, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Jaddoe VW, Franco OH, et al. Protein intake in early childhood and body composition at the age of 6 years: the generation R study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2016;40:1018-25.

164. Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, Buyken AE. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1765-72.

165. Singh AS, Mulder C, Twisk JW, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJ. Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 2008;9:474-88.

Journal of Unexplored Medical Data
ISSN 2572-8180 (Online)
Follow Us


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: