1. McLaren RA Jr, Chang KW, Ankumah NE, Yang LJ, Chauhan SP. Persistence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy among nulliparous versus parous women. AJP Rep 2019;9:1-5.

2. Jobe MT. Peripheral nerve injuries. In: Cnalae ST, Beaty JH, editors. Campbells’s operative orthopedics, ed 12. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2013. p.3062-123.

3. Gordon M, Rich H, Deutschberger J, Green M. The immediate and long-term outcome of obstetric birth trauma. I. Brachial plexus paralysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1973;117:51-6.

4. Hems T. Nerve transfers for traumatic brachial plexus injury: advantages and problems. J Hand Microsurg 2011;3:6-10.

5. Russo SA, Kozin SH, Zlotolow DA, et al. Scapulothoracic and glenohumeral contributions to motion in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2014;23:327-38.

6. Chow BC, Blaser S, Clarke HM. Predictive value of computed tomographic myelography in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000;106:971-7; discussion 978.

7. Steens SC, Pondaag W, Malessy MJ, Verbist BM. Obstetric brachial plexus lesions: CT myelography. Radiology 2011;259:508-15.

8. Tse R, Nixon JN, Iyer RS, Kuhlman-Wood KA, Ishak GE. The diagnostic value of CT myelography, MR myelography, and both in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2014;35:1425-32.

9. Bauer AS, Shen PY, Nidecker AE, Lee PS, James MA. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging without sedation correlates with injury severity in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Hand Surg Am 2017;42:335-43.

10. Gunes A, Bulut E, Uzumcugil A, Oguz KK. Brachial plexus ultrasound and mri in children with brachial plexus birth injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018;39:1745-50.

11. Kawai H, Tsuyuguchi Y, Masada K, et al. Identification of the lesion in brachial plexus injuries with root avulsion: a comprehensive assessment by means of preoperative findings, myelography, surgical exploration and intraoperative electrodiagnosis. Neuro-orthopedics 1989;15-23. Available from:

12. Squitieri L, Steggerda J, Yang LJ, Kim HM, Chung KC. A national study to evaluate trends in the utilization of nerve reconstruction for treatment of neonatal brachial plexus palsy [outcomes article]. Plast Reconstr Surg 2011;127:277-83.

13. Bjorklund KA, West JM, Nopkhun W, Moore AM. Surgical innovations to restore function in pediatric peripheral nerve conditions. Pediatrics 2021;148:e2021052556.

14. Davidge KM, Clarke HM, Borschel GH. Nerve transfers in birth related brachial plexus injuries: where do we stand? Hand Clin 2016;32:175-90.

15. Tse R, Kozin SH, Malessy MJ, Clarke HM. International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Committee report: the role of nerve transfers in the treatment of neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Am 2015;40:1246-59.

16. Kozin SH. Nerve transfers in brachial plexus birth palsies: indications, techniques, and outcomes. Hand Clin 2008;24:363-76, v.

17. Hinchcliff KM, Pulos N, Shin AY, Stutz C. Morbidity of nerve transfers for brachial plexus birth injury: a systematic review. J Pediatr Orthop 2021;41:e188-98.

18. Pondaag W, Malessy MJ, van Dijk JG, Thomeer RT. Natural history of obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004;46:138-44.

19. Smith BW, Chang KWC, Koduri S, Yang LJS. Nerve graft versus nerve transfer for neonatal brachial plexus: shoulder outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020;27:87-92.

20. Terzis JK, Papakonstantinou KC. Management of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Hand Clin 1999;15:717-36.

21. Veeger HE, van der Helm FC. Shoulder function: the perfect compromise between mobility and stability. J Biomech 2007;40:2119-29.

22. Kozin SH. Correlation between external rotation of the glenohumeral joint and deformity after brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2004;24:189-93.

23. Clarke SE, Kozin SH, Chafetz RS. The biceps tendon as a measure of rotational deformity in residual brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2009;29:490-5.

24. Tse R, Marcus JR, Curtis CG, Dupuis A, Clarke HM. Suprascapular nerve reconstruction in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: spinal accessory nerve transfer versus C5 root grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 2011;127:2391-6.

25. Seruya M, Shen SH, Fuzzard S, Coombs CJ, McCombe DB, Johnstone BR. Spinal accessory nerve transfer outperforms cervical root grafting for suprascapular nerve reconstruction in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;135:1431-8.

26. Witoonchart K, Leechavengvongs S, Uerpairojkit C, Thuvasethakul P, Wongnopsuwan V. Nerve transfer to deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps, part I: an anatomic feasibility study. J Hand Surg Am 2003;28:628-32.

27. Pondaag W, de Boer R, van Wijlen-Hempel MS, Hofstede-Buitenhuis SM, Malessy MJ. External rotation as a result of suprascapular nerve neurotization in obstetric brachial plexus lesions. Neurosurgery 2005;57:530-7; discussion 530.

28. Manske MC, Kalish LA, Cornwall R, Peljovich AE, Bauer AS. Reconstruction of the suprascapular nerve in brachial plexus birth injury: a comparison of nerve grafting and nerve transfers. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020;102:298-308.

29. Al-Qattan MM, El-Sayed AA, Al-Zahrani AY, et al. Narakas classification of obstetric brachial plexus palsy revisited. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2009;34:788-91.

30. Curtis C, Stephens D, Clarke HM, Andrews D. The active movement scale: an evaluative tool for infants with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Am 2002;27:470-8.

31. Nickel KJ, Morzycki A, Hsiao R, Morhart MJ, Olson JL. Nerve transfer is superior to nerve grafting for suprascapular nerve reconstruction in obstetrical brachial plexus birth injury: a meta-analysis. Hand (N Y) 2021:Epub ahead of print.

32. Segal D, Cornwall R, Little KJ. Outcomes of spinal accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfers for brachial plexus birth injury. J Hand Surg Am 2019;44:578-87.

33. Waters PM. Comparison of the natural history, the outcome of microsurgical repair, and the outcome of operative reconstruction in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999;81:649-59.

34. Bertelli JA, Ghizoni MF. Reconstruction of C5 and C6 brachial plexus avulsion injury by multiple nerve transfers: spinal accessory to suprascapular, ulnar fascicles to biceps branch, and triceps long or lateral head branch to axillary nerve. J Hand Surg Am 2004;29:131-9.

35. Tung TH, Novak CB, Mackinnon SE. Nerve transfers to the biceps and brachialis branches to improve elbow flexion strength after brachial plexus injuries. J Neurosurg 2003;98:313-8.

36. Blaauw G, Slooff AC. Transfer of pectoral nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve in obstetric upper brachial plexus palsy. Neurosurgery 2003;53:338-41; discussion 341.

37. Ladak A, Morhart M, O'Grady K, et al. Distal nerve transfers are effective in treating patients with upper trunk obstetrical brachial plexus injuries: an early experience. Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;132:985e-92e.

38. Rde M, Grechi G, Gepp Rde A. Oberlin’s procedure in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Childs Nerv Syst 2016;32:1085-91.

39. Siqueira MG, Socolovsky M, Heise CO, Martins RS, Di Masi G. Efficacy and safety of Oberlin's procedure in the treatment of brachial plexus birth palsy. Neurosurgery 2012;71:1156-60; discussion 1161.

40. Al-Qattan MM. Oberlin’s ulnar nerve transfer to the biceps nerve in Erb’s birth palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002;109:405-7.

41. Shigematsu K, Yajima H, Kobata Y, Kawamura K, Maegawa N, Takakura Y. Oberlin partial ulnar nerve transfer for restoration in obstetric brachial plexus palsy of a newborn: case report. J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 2006;1:3.

42. O'Grady KM, Power HA, Olson JL, et al. Comparing the efficacy of triple nerve transfers with nerve graft reconstruction in upper trunk obstetric brachial plexus injury. Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;140:747-56.

43. Terzis JK, Papakonstantinou K. Surgical treatment of obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis: the norfolk experience. Semin Plast Surg 2004;18:359-75.

44. Gu YD. Contralateral C7 root transfer over the last 20 years in China. Chin Med J (Engl) 2007;120:1123-26.

45. Lin H, Hou C, Chen D. Modified C7 neurotization for the treatment of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Muscle Nerve 2010;42:764-8.

46. Lin H, Hou C, Chen D. Contralateral C7 transfer for the treatment of upper obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Surg Int 2011;27:997-1001.

47. Chen L, Gu YD, Hu SN, Xu JG, Xu L, Fu Y. Contralateral C7 transfer for the treatment of brachial plexus root avulsions in children - a report of 12 cases. J Hand Surg Am 2007;32:96-103.

48. Malessy MJ, Hoffmann CF, Thomeer RT. Initial report on the limited value of hypoglossal nerve transfer to treat brachial plexus root avulsions. J Neurosurg 1999;91:601-4.

49. Blaauw G, Sauter Y, Lacroix CL, Slooff AC. Hypoglossal nerve transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2006;59:474-8.

50. Lanier ST, Hill JR, James AS, Rolf L, Brogan DM, Dy CJ. Approach to the pan-brachial Plexus injury: variation in surgical strategies among surgeons. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2020;8:e3267.

51. Mallet J. Paralysie obstétricale du plexus brachial. 3. Conclusions [Obstetrical paralysis of the brachial plexus. 3. Conclusions]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1972;58:201-4.

52. Mallet J. Obstetrical paralysis of the brachial plexus. II. Therapeutics. Treatment of sequelae. Results of different therapeutic technics and indications. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1972;58:192-6.

53. Compston A. Aids to the investigation of peripheral nerve injuries. Medical Research Council: Nerve Injuries Research Committee. His Majesty’s Stationery Office: 1942; pp. 48 (iii) and 74 figures and 7 diagrams; with aids to the examination of the peripheral nervous system. By Michael O'Brien for the Guarantors of Brain. Saunders Elsevier: 2010; pp. [8] 64 and 94 Figures. Brain 2010;133:2838-44.

Plastic and Aesthetic Research
ISSN 2349-6150 (Online)   2347-9264 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: