1. Osborne JP, Fryer A, Webb D. Epidemiology of tuberous sclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991;615:125-7.

2. Krueger DA, Northrup H. Tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance and management: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference. Pediatr Neurol 2013;49:255-65.

3. Curatolo P, Bombardieri R, Jozwiak S. Tuberous sclerosis. Lancet 2008;372:657-68.

4. Hofbauer GF, Marcollo-Pini A, Corsenca A, Kistler AD, French LE, Wüthrich RP, Serra AL. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin significantly improves facial angiofibroma lesions in a patient with tuberous sclerosis. Br J Dermatol 2008;159:473-5.

5. Haemel AK, O'Brian AL, Teng JM. Topical rapamycin: a novel approach to facial angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis. Arch Dermatol 2010;146:715-8.

6. Mutizwa MM, Berk DR, Anadkat MJ. Treatment of facial angiofibromas with topical application of oral rapamycin solution (1mgmL(-1)) in two patients with tuberous sclerosis. Br J Dermatol 2011;165:922-3.

7. DeKlotz CM, Ogram AE, Singh S, Dronavalli S, MacGregor JL. Dramatic improvement of facial angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis with topical rapamycin: optimizing a treatment protocol. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:1116-7.

8. Truchuelo T, Diaz-Ley B, Rios L, Alcantara J, Jaen P. Facial angiofibromas treated with topical rapamycin: an excellent choice with fast response. Dermatol Online J 2012;18:15.

9. Kaufman McNamara E, Curtis AR, Fleischer AB Jr. Successful treatment of angiofibromata of tuberous sclerosis complex with rapamycin. J Dermatolog Treat 2012;23:46-8.

10. Knopfel N, Martin-Santiago A, Bauza A, Hervas JA. Topical 0.2% rapamycin to treat facial angiofibromas and hypomelanotic macules in tuberous sclerosis. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2014;105:802-3.

11. Wataya-Kaneda M, Tanaka M, Nakamura A, Matsumoto S, Katayama I. A topical combination of rapamycin and tacrolimus for the treatment of angiofibroma due to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a pilot study of nine Japanese patients with TSC of different disease severity. Br J Dermatol 2011;165:912-6.

12. Foster RS, Bint LJ, Halbert AR. Topical 0.1% rapamycin for angiofibromas in paediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis: a pilot study of four patients. Australas J Dermatol 2012;53:52-6.

13. Salido R, Garnacho-Saucedo G, Cuevas-Asencio I, Ruano J, Galán-Gutierrez M, Vélez A, Moreno-Giménez JC. Sustained clinical effectiveness and favorable safety profile of topical sirolimus for tuberous sclerosis - associated facial angiofibroma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2012;26:1315-8.

14. Tanaka M, Wataya-Kaneda M, Nakamura A, Matsumoto S, Katayama I. First left-right comparative study of topical rapamycin vs. vehicle for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Br J Dermatol 2013;169:1314-8.

15. Park J, Yun SK, Cho YS, Song KH, Kim HU. Treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex: the effect of topical rapamycin and concomitant laser therapy. Dermatology 2014;228:37-41.

16. Tu J, Foster RS, Bint LJ, Halbert AR. Topical rapamycin for angiofibromas in paediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis: follow up of a pilot study and promising future directions. Australas J Dermatol 2014;55:63-9.

17. Koenig MK, Hebert AA, Roberson J, Samuels J, Slopis J, Woerner A, Northrup H. Topical rapamycin therapy to alleviate the cutaneous manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied rapamycin. Drug R D 2012;12:121-6.

18. Vasani RJ. Facial angiofibromas of tuberous sclerosis treated with topical sirolimus in an Indian patient. Indian J Dermatol 2015;60:165-9.

19. Pynn EV, Collins J, Hunasehally PR, Hughes J. Successful topical rapamycin treatment for facial angiofibromata in two children. Pediatr Dermatol 2015;32:e120-3.

20. Knoll GA, Kokolo MB, Mallick R, Beck A, Buenaventura CD, Ducharme R, Barsoum R, Bernasconi C, Blydt-Hansen TD, Ekberg H, Felipe CR, Firth J, Gallon L, Gelens M, Glotz D, Gossmann J, Guba M, Morsy AA, Salgo R, Scheuermann EH, Tedesco-Silva H, Vitko S, Watson C, Fergusson DA. Effect of sirolimus on malignancy and survival after kidney transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. BMJ 2014;349:g6679.

21. Salido-Vallejo R, Ruano J, Garnacho-Saucedo G, Godoy-Gijón E, Llorca D, Gómez-Fernández C, Moreno-Giménez JC. Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI): reliability assessment of a new tool developed to measure severity and responsiveness to therapy in tuberous sclerosis-associated facial angiofibroma. Clin Exp Dermatol 2014;39:888-93.

Plastic and Aesthetic Research
ISSN 2349-6150 (Online)   2347-9264 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: