1. Flourens P. Experiences on the repair and healing of the spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries. Ann Sci Naturelles 1828;13:113-22.
3. Cunningham RH. The restoration of coordinated, volitional movement after nerve "crossing". Am J Physiol 1898;1:239-54.
4. Ballance CA, Ballance HA, Stewart P. Remarks on the operative treatment of chronic facial palsy of peripheral origin. Br Med J 1903;1:1009-13.
5. Körte W. A case of engrafting of the facial nerve into the hypoglossal nerve. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1903;29:293-5.
6. Harris W, Low VW. On the importance of accurate muscular analysisin lesions of the brachial plexus; and the treatment of Erb's palsy and infantile paralysis of the upper extremity by cross-union of the nerve roots. Br Med J 1903;24:1035-8.
8. Boyd KU, Nimigan AS, Mackinnon SE. Nerve reconstruction in the hand and upper extremity. Clin Plast Surg 2011;38:643-60.
9. Lee SK, Wolfe SW. Nerve transfers for the upper extremity: new horizons in nerve reconstruction. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2012;20:506-17.
10. Mackinnon SE, Colbert SH. Nerve transfers in the hand and upper extremity surgery. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 2008;12:20-33.
11. Garg R, Merrell GA, Hillstrom HJ, Wolfe SW. Comparison of nerve transfers and nerve grafting for traumatic upper plexus palsy: a systematic review and analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2011;93:819-29.
12. Pfister BJ, Gordon T, Loverde JR, Kochar AS, Mackinnon SE, Cullen DK. Mackinnon SE, Cullen DK. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2011;39:81-124.
13. Seddon H. Surgical Disorders of the Peripheral Nerves. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1973. p. 164.
14. Samii A, Carvalho GA, Samii M. Brachial plexus injury: factors affecting functional outcome in spinal accessory nerve transfer for the restoration of elbow flexion. J Neurosurg 2003;98:307-12.
17. Dvali L, Mackinnon S. Nerve repair, grafting, and nerve transfers. Clin Plast Surg 2003;30:203-21.
18. Mackinnon SE, Novak CB, Myckatyn TM, Tung TH. Results of reinnervation of the biceps and brachialis muscles with a double fascicular transfer for elbow flexion. J Hand Surg Am 2005;30:978-85.
19. Mackinnon SE, Novak CB. Nerve transfers. New options for reconstruction following nerve injury. Hand Clin 1999;15:643-66.
20. Pet MA, Ray WZ, Yee A, Mackinnon SE. Nerve transfer to the triceps after brachial plexus injury: report of four cases. J Hand Surg Am 2011;36:398-405.
21. Anastakis DJ, Malessy MJ, Chen R, Davis KD, Mikulis D. Cortical plasticity following nerve transfer in the upper extremity. Hand Clin 2008;24:425-44.
22. Anastakis DJ, Chen R, Davis KD, Mikulis D. Cortical plasticity following upper extremity injury and reconstruction. Clin Plast Surg 2005;32:617-34.
23. Davis KD, Taylor KS, Anastakis DJ. Nerve injury triggers changes in the brain. Neuroscientist 2011;17:407-22.
24. Taylor KS, Anastakis DJ, Davis KD. Cutting your nerve changes your brain. Brain 2009;132:3122-33.
25. Tung TH, Mackinnon SE. Nerve transfers: indications, techniques, and outcomes. J Hand Surg Am 2010;35:332-41.
26. Chuang DC, Epstein MD, Yeh MC, Wei FC. Functional restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injuries: results in 167 patients (excluding obstetric brachial plexus injury). J Hand Surg Am 1993;18:285-91.
27. Socolovsky M, Di Masi G, Battaglia D. Use of long autologous nerve grafts in brachial plexus reconstruction: factors that affect the outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2011;153:2231-40.
28. Wolfe SW, Johnsen PH, Lee SK, Feinberg JH. Long-nerve grafts and nerve transfers demonstrate comparable outcomes for axillary nerve injuries. J Hand Surg Am 2014;39:1351-7.
29. Foster RJ, Swiontkowski MF, Bach AW, Sack JT. Radial nerve palsy caused by open humeral shaft fractures. J Hand Surg Am 1993;18:121-4.
30. Bumbasirevic M, Lesic A, Bumbasirevic V, Cobeljic G, Milosevic I, Atkinson HD. The management of humeral shaft fractures with associated radial nerve palsy: a review of 117 cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2010;130:519-22.
31. Bishop J, Ring D. Management of radial nerve palsy associated with humeral shaft fracture: a decision analysis model. J Hand Surg Am 2009;34:991-6.
32. Green DP. Radial nerve palsy. In: Green DP, Hotchkiss RN, Pederson WC, Wolfe SW, editors. Green's Operative Hand Surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. pp. 1113-29.
33. Bowden RE, Napier EJ. The assessment of hand function after peripheral nerve injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1961;43:481-92.
34. Lowe JB 3rd, Sen SK, Mackinnon SE. Current approach to radial nerve paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002;110:1099-113.
36. Lowe JB 3rd, Tung TR, Mackinnon SE. New surgical option for radial nerve paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002;110:836-43.
37. Mackinnon SE, Roque B, Tung TH. Median to radial nerve transfer for treatment of radial nerve palsy. Case report. J Neurosurg 2007;107:666-71.
38. Tung TH, Weber RV, Mackinnon SE. Nerve transfers for the upper and lower extremities. Oper Tech Orthop 2004;14:213-22.
39. Schultz RJ, Aiache A. An operation to restore opposition of the thumb by nerve transfer. Arch Surg 1972;105:777-9.
40. Tung TH, Mackinnon SE. Flexor digitorum superficialis nerve transfer to restore pronation: two case reports and anatomic study. J Hand Surg Am 2001;26:1065-72.
41. Hsiao EC, Fox IK, Tung TH, MacKinnon SE. Motor nerve transfer to restore extrinsic median nerve function: case report. Hand (N Y) 2009;4:92-7.
42. Murphy RK, Ray WZ, Mackinnon SE. Repair of a median nerve transaction injury using multiple nerve transfers, with long-term functional recovery. J Neurosurg 2012;117:886-9.
43. Gu Y, Wang H, Zhang L, Zhang G, Zhao X, Chen L. Transfer of brachialis branch of musculocutaneous nerve for finger flexion: anatomic study and case report. Microsurgery 2004;24:358-62.
44. García-López A, Sebastian P, Martinez F, Perea D. Transfer of the nerve to the brachioradialis muscle to the anterior interosseous nerve for treatment for lower brachial plexus lesions: case report. J Hand Surg Am 2011;36:394-7.
45. Rapp E, Lallemand S, Ehrler S, Buch N, Foucher G. Restoration of sensation over the contact surfaces of the thumb-index pinch grip using the terminal branches of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. Chir Main 1999;18:179-83.
46. Bertelli JA, Ghizoni MF. Very distal sensory nerve transfers in high median nerve lesions. J Hand Surg Am 2011;36:387-93.
47. Ross D, Mackinnon SE, Chang YL. Intraneural anatomy of the median nerve provides "third web space" donor nerve graft. J Reconstr Microsurg 1992;8:225-32.
48. Pfaeffle HJ, Waitayawinyu T, Trumble TE. Ulnar nerve laceration and repair. Hand Clin 2007;23:291-9.
49. Vastamäki M, Kallio PK, Solonen KA. The results of secondary microsurgical repair of ulnar nerve injury. J Hand Surg Br 1993;18:323-6.
50. Sammer DM, Chung KC. Tendon transfers: part II. Transfers for ulnar nerve palsy and median nerve palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;124:e212-21.
51. Gaul JS, Jr. Intrinsic motor recovery: a long term study of ulnar repairs. J Hand Surg Am 1982;7:502-8.
52. Wang Y, Zhu S. Transfer of a branch of the anterior interosseous nerve to the motor branch of the median nerve and ulnar nerve. Chin Med J (Engl) 1997;110:216-9.
53. Battiston B, Lanzetta M. Reconstruction of high ulnar nerve lesions by distal double median to ulnar nerve transfer. J Hand Surg Am 1999;24:1185-91.
54. Haase SC, Chung KC. Anterior interosseous nerve transfer to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve for high ulnar nerve injuries. Ann Plast Surg 2002;49:285-90.
55. Novak CB, Mackinnon SE. Distal anterior interosseous nerve transfer to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve for reconstruction of high ulnar nerve injuries. J Reconstr Microsurg 2002;18:459-64.
56. Brown JM, Yee A, Mackinnon SE. Distal median to ulnar nerve transfers to restore ulnar motor and sensory function within the hand: technical nuances. Neurosurgery 2009;65:966-78.
57. Sukegawa K, Kuniyoshi K, Suzuki T, Ogawa Y, Okamoto S, Shibayama M, Kobayashi T, Takahashi K. Ananatomical study of transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve for the treatment of proximal ulnar nerve injuries. Bone Joint J 2014;96:789-94.
58. Taleisnik J. The palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve and the approach to the carpal tunnel. An anatomical study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1973;55:1212-7.
59. Tung TH, Barbour JR, Gontre G, Daliwal G, Mackinnon SE. Transfer of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris branches of the posterior interosseous nerve to restore intrinsic hand function: case report and anatomic study. J Hand Surg Am 2012;38:98-103.
60. Phillips BZ, Franco MJ, Yee A, Tung TH, Mackinnon SE, Fox IK. Direct radial to ulnar nerve transfer to restore intrinsic muscle function in combinedproximal median and ulnar nerve injury: case report and surgical technique. J Hand Surg Am 2014;39:1358-62.
61. Flores LP. Distal anterior interosseous nerve transfer to the deep ulnar nerve and end-to-side suture of the superficial ulnar nerve to the third common palmar digital nerve for treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries: experience in five cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2011;69:519-24.
62. Oberlin C, Teboul F, Severin S, Beaulieu JY. Transfer of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm to the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, for providing sensation on the ulnar aspect of the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg 2003;112:1498-500.