1. Phillipeaux JM, Vulpian A. Note on the trial of a lingual nerve trunk graft between two stumps of the hypoglossal. Arch Physiol Norm Pathol 1870;3:618.

2. Bunnell S, Boyes JH. Nerve grafts. Am J Surg 1939;44:64-75.

3. Klar E. About experiences and successes in application of plastic bridging defects in peripheral nerves. Z Neurol Psychiatr 1943;176:533-55.

4. Seddon HJ. The use of autologous grafts for the repair of large gaps in peripheral nerves. Br J Surg 1947;35:151-67.

5. Tarlov IM, Epstein JA. Nerve grafts: the importance of an adequate blood supply. J Neurosurg 1945;2:49-71.

6. Strange FG. An operation for nerve pedicle grafting; preliminary communication. Br J Surg 1947;34:423-5.

7. Taylor GI, Ham FJ. The free vascularized nerve graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 1976;57:413-26.

8. Lind R, Wood MB. Comparison of pattern of early revascularisation of conventional versus vascularized nerve grafts in canine. J Reconstr Microsurg 1986;2:229-34.

9. Penkert G, Bini W, Samii M. Revascularization of nerve grafts: an experimental study. J Reconstr Microsurg 1988;4:319-25.

10. Sunderland S. Nerves and Nerve Injuries. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1978.

11. Brooks D. The place of nerve-grafting in orthopedic surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1955;37:299-305.

12. Seddon HJ. Nerve grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1963;45:447-61.

13. Best TJ, Mackinnon SE, Bain JR, Makino A, Evans PJ. Verification of a free vascularized nerve graft model in the rat with application to the peripheral nerve allograft. Plast Reconstr Surg 1993;92:516-25.

14. el-Barrany WG, Marei AG, Vallée B. Anatomic basis of vascularised nerve grafts: the blood supply of peripheral nerves. Surg Radiol Anat 1999;21:95-102.

15. Lux P, Breidenbach W, Firrel J. Determination of temporal changes in blood flow in vascularized and nonvascularized nerve grafts in the dog. Plast Reconstr Surg 1988;82:133-44.

16. Mani GV, Shurey C, Green CJ. Is early vascularization of nerve grafts necessary? J Hand Surg Br 1992;17:536-43.

17. Settergren CR, Wood MB. Comparison of blood flow in free vascularized versus nonvascularized nerve grafts. J Reconstr Microsurg 1984;1:95-101.

18. Appenzeller O, Dhital KK, Cowen T, Burnstock G. The nerves to blood vessels supplying blood to nerves: the innervations of vasa nervorum. Brain Res 1984;304:383-6.

19. Cowen T, MacCormick DE, Toff WD, Burnstock G, Lumley JS. The effect of surgical procedures on blood vessel innervations. A fluorescence histochemical study of degeneration and regrowth of perivascular adrenergic nerves. Blood Vessels 1982;19:65-78.

20. Selander D, Mansson LG, Karlsson L, Svanvik J. Adrenergic vasoconstriction in peripheral nerves of the rabbi. Anesthesiology 1985;62:6-10.

21. McCullough CJ, Grady O, Higgerson DW. Axon regeneration and vascularization of nerve grafts. An experimental study. B J Hand Surg Br 1984;9:323-7.

22. Seckel BR, Ryan SE, Simons JE, Gagne RG, Watkins E Jr. Vascularized versus nonvascularized nerve grafts: an experimental structural comparison. Plast Reconstr Surg 1986;78:211-20.

23. Pho RW, Lee YS, Rujiwetpongstorn V, Pang M. Histological studies of vascularised nerve graft and conventional nerve graft. J Hand Surg Br 1985;1:45-8.

24. Restepo Y, Merle M, Michon J, Folliguet B, Barrat E. Free vascularized nerve grafts: an experimental study in the rabbit. Microsurgery 1985;6:78-84.

25. Shibata M, Tsai TM, Firrel J, Breidenbach WC. Experimental comparison of vascularized and nonvascularized nerve grafting. J Hand Surg Am 1988;3:358-65.

26. Kanaya F, Firrel J, Tsai TM, Breidenbach WC. Functional results of vascularized versus nonvascularized nerve grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 1992;5:924-30.

27. de Medinaceli L, Freed WJ, Wyatt RJ. An index of the functional condition of rat sciatic nerve based on measurements made from walking tracks. Exp Neurol 1982;77:634-43.

28. Kärcher H, Kleinert R. Regeneration in vascularized and free nerve grafts. A comparative morphological study in rats. J Maxillofac Surg 1986;14:341-3.

29. Koshima I, Harii K. Experimental study of vascularized nerve grafts: multifactoral analyses of axonal regeneration of nerves transplanted into an acute burn wound. J Hand Surg Am 1985;10:64-72.

30. Rose EH, Kowalski TA. Restoration of sensibility to anesthetic scarred digits with free vascularized nerve grafts from the dorsum of the foot. J Hand Surg Am 1985;4:514-21.

31. Doi K, Kuwata N, Kawakami F, Tamaru K, Kawai S. The free vascularized sural nerve graft. Microsurgery 1984;5:175-84.

32. Doi K, Kuwata N, Sakai K, Tamaru K, Kawai S. A reliable technique of free vascularized sural nerve grafting and preliminary results of clinical applications. J Hand Surg Am 1987;12:677-84.

33. Townsend PL, Taylor GI. Vascularised nerve grafts using composite arterialised neuro-venous systems. Br J Plast Surg 1984;37:1-17.

34. Rose EH, Kowalski TA, Norris MS. The reversed venous arterialized nerve graft in digital nerve reconstruction across scarred beds. Plast Reconstr Surg 1989;83:593-604.

35. Bonney G, Birch R, Jamieson AM, Eames RA. Experience with vascularized nerve grafts. Clin Plast Surg 1984;11:137-42.

36. Ballance C, Duel AB. The operative treatment of facial palsy by the introduction of nerve grafts into the fallopian canal and by other intratemporal methods. Arch Otolaryngol 1932;15:1-70.

37. Baker DC, Conley J. Facial nerve grafting: a thirty year retrospective review. Clin Plast Surg 1979;6:343-60.

38. Kimata Y, Sakuraba M, Hishinuma S, Ebihara S, Hayashi R, Asakage T. Free vascularized nerve grafting for immediate facial nerve reconstruction. Laryngoscope 2005;115:331-6.

39. Koshima I, Yamamoto H, Moriguchi T, Kawada S, Ono Y. Combined anteroposterior tibial perforator-based flap with a vascularized deep peroneal nerve for repair of facial defect. Ann Plast Surg 1994;33:421-5.

40. Koshima I, Nanba Y, Tsutsui T, Takahashi Y, Kawai A. Vascularized femoral nerve graft with anterolateral thigh true perforator flap for massive defects after cancer ablation in the upper arm. J Reconstr Microsurg 2003;19:299-302.

41. Koshima I, Nanba Y, Tsutsui T, Takahashi Y, Itoh S. New one-stage nerve pedicle grafting technique using the great auricular nerve for reconstruction of facial nerve defects. J Reconstr Microsurg 2004;20:357-61.

42. Hasegawa T, Nakamura S, Manabe T, Mikawa Y. Vascularized nerve grafts for the treatment of large nerve gap after severe trauma to an upper extremity. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2004;214:209-13.

43. Lida T, Nakagawa M, Asano T, Fukushima C, Tachi K. Free vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve graft with anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of facial nerve defects. J Reconstr Microsurg 2006;22:343-8.

44. House JW. Facial nerve grading systems. Laryngoscope 1983;93:1056-69.

45. Yanagihara N. On standardised documentation of facial palsy. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 1977;80:799-805.

46. Kashiwa K, Kobayashi S, Ogino K, Kashiwaya G, Higuchi H. Inferolateral extension of the groin flap based on the artery accompanying the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. J Reconstr Microsurg 2009;25:181-9.

47. Koshima L, Narushila M, Mihara M, Ushida G, Nakagawa M. Fascicular turnover flap for nerve gaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010;63:1008-14.

48. Schultes G, Kärcher H, Gaggl A, Anderhuber F. Anatomic basis of vascularized nerve graft using the long thoracic nerve. Surg Radiol Anat 1999;21:91-4.

49. Kouyoumdjian JA. Peripheral nerve injuries: a retrospective survey of 456 cases. Muscle Nerve 2006;34:785-8.

50. Posch JL, dela Cruz-Saddul F. Nerve repair in trauma surgery: a ten-year study of 231 peripheral injuries. Orthop Rev 1980;9:35-45.

51. Bruyns CN, Jaquet JB, Schreuders TA, Kalmijn S, Kuypers PD, Hovius SE. Predictors for return to work in patients with median and ulnar nerve injuries. J Hand Surg Am 2003;28:28-34.

52. Ruijs AC, Jaquet JB, Kalmijn S, Giele H, Hovius SE. Median and ulnar nerve injuries: a meta-analysis of predictors of motor and sensory recovery after modern microsurgical nerve repair. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;116:484-94.

53. Vormdemvenne T, Langer M, Ochman S, Raschke M, Schult M. Long-term results after primary microsurgical repair of ulnar and median nerve injuries. A comparison of common score systems. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2007;109:263-71.

54. Allan CH, Vanderhooft E. Functional outcomes after nerve grafting. Atlas Hand Clin 2005;10:93.

55. Jaquet JB, Luijsterburg AJ, Kalmijn S, Kuypers PD, Hofman A, Hovius SE. Median, ulnar, and combined median-ulnar nerve injuries: functional outcome and return to productivity. J Trauma 2001;51:687-92.

56. Gilbert A. Vascularized sural nerve graft. In: microreconstruction of Nerve Injuries. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1987. pp. 576-601.

57. Fachinelli A, Masquelet A, Restrepo J. The vascularized sural nerve. Int J Microsurg 1981;3:57-62.

58. Breidenbach W, Terzis JK. The anatomy of free vascularized nerve grafts. Clin Plast Surg 1984;11:65-71.

59. Riordan CL, Nanney LB, Upton J 3rd, Wolfort SF. Vascularized medial sural cutaneous nerve based on the superficial sural artery: a reliable nerve graft. J Reconstr Microsurg 2002;18:147-52.

60. Zachary RB. Results of nerve suture. Spec Rep Ser Med Res Counc 1954;282:354-88.

61. Gu YD, Wu MM, Zheng YL, Li HR, Xu YN. Arterialized venous free sural nerve grafting. Ann Plast Surg 1985;15:332-9.

62. Terzis JK, Kostopoulos VK. Vascularized nerve grafts and vascularized fascia for upper extremity nerve reconstruction. Hand (N Y) 2010;5:19-30.

63. Lebreton E, Bourgeon Y, Lascombes P, Merle M, Foucher G. Systemization of the vascularization of the ulnar nerve in its upper arm. Ann Chir Main 1983;2:211-8.

64. Chuang DC, Epstein MD, Yeh MC, Wei FC. Functional restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injuries: results in 167 patients (excluding obstetric brachial plexus injury). J Hand Surg Am 1993;18:285-91.

65. Terzis JK, Kostopoulos VK. Vascularized ulnar nerve graft. 151 reconstructions for posttraumatic brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;123:1276-91.

66. Terzis JK, Vekris MD, Soucacos PN. Outcomes of brachial plexus reconstruction in 204 patients with devastating paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999;5:1221-40.

67. Birch R, Dunckerton M, Bonney G, Jamieson AM. Experience with the free vascularized ulnar nerve graft in repair of supraclavicular lesions of the brachial plexus. Ciln Orthop Relat Res 1988;237:96-104.

68. Oberlin C, Alnot JY, Comtet JJ. Vascularized nerve trunk grafts. Technique and results of 27 cases. Ann Chir Main 1989;8:316-23.

69. Bertelli JA, Ghizoni MF. Results of C5 root grafting to the musculocutaneous nerve using pedicled, vascularized ulnar nerve grafts. J Hand Surg Am 2009;6:1821-6.

70. Okinaga S, Nagano A. Can vascularization improve the surgical outcome of the intercostal nerve transfer for traumatic brachial plexus palsy? A clinical comparison of vascularized and non-vascularized methods. Microsurgery 1999;19:176-180.

71. Koshima L, Murashita T, Soeda S. Free vascularized deep peroneal neurocutaneous flap for repair of digital nerve defect involving severe finger damage. J Hand Surg Am 1991;16:227-9.

72. Willemart G, Kane A, Morrison WA. Island dorsalis pedis skin flap in combination with toe or toe segment transfer based on the same vascular pedicle. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999;104:1424-9.

73. Samson MC, Morris SF, Tweed AE. Dorsalis pedis flap donor site: acceptable or not? Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;102:1549-54.

74. Gilbert A. Composite tissue transfer from the foot: anatomic basis and surgical technique. In: Daniller AI, Strauch B, editors. Symposium on Microsurgery. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1976. pp. 230-42.

75. May JW Jr, Chait LA, Cohen BE, O'Brien BM. Free neurovascular flap from the first web of the foot in hand reconstructio. J Hand Surg Am 1977;2:387-93.

76. del Pinal F, Garcia-Bernal FJ, Regalado J, Studer A, Cagigal A, Ayala A. The tibial second toe vascularized neurocutaneous free flap for major digital nerve defects. J Hand Surg Am 2007;32:209-17.

77. Seddon HJ. Surgical Disorders of the Peripheral Nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1972.

78. Berry H, Richardson PM. Common peroneal nerve palsy: a clinical and electrophysiological review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:1162-71.

79. Wood MB. Peroneal nerve repair. Surgical results. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1991;267:206-10.

80. Demuynck M, Zuker RM. The peroneal nerve: is repair worthwhile? J Reconstr Microsurg 1987;3:193-7.

81. Suami H, Taylor GI, Pan WR. Angiosome territories of the nerves of the lower limbs. Plast Reconstr Surg 2003;112:1790-8.

82. Terzis JK, Kostopoulos VK. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremety nerve reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 2010;64:169-76.

83. Platt H, Lond MS. The classic. Traction lesions of the external popliteal nerve. By Harry Platt. 1940. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1986;210:5-8.

84. Kim DH, Kline DG. Management and results of peroneal nerve lesions. Neurosurgery 1996;39:312-9.

85. Kim DH, Murovic JA, Tiel RL, Kline DG. Management and outcomes in 318 operative common peroneal nerve lesions at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Neurosurgery 2004;54:1421-8.

86. Petit F, Minns AB, Dubernard JM, Hettieratchy S, Lee WP. Composite tissue allotransplantation and reconstructive surgery: first clinical applications. Ann Surg 2003;237:19-25.

87. Mackinnon SE, Doolabh VB, Novak CB, Trulock EP. Clinical outcome following nerve allograft transplantation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001;107:1419-29.

88. Bain JR. Peripheral nerve and neuromuscular allotransplantation: current status. Microsurgery 2000;20:384-8.

89. Mackinnon SE, Hudson AR. Clinical application of peripheral nerve transplantation. Plast Reconstr Surg 1992;90:695-9.

90. Mackinnon SE. Nerve allotransplantation following severe tibial nerve injury. Case report. J Neurosurg 1996;84:671-6.

91. Hong MK, Hong MK, Taylor GI. Angiosome territories of the nerves of the upper limbs. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;118:148-60.

92. Breidenbach WC, Terzis JK. Vascularized nerve grafts: an experimental and clinical review. Ann Plast Surg 1987;18:137-46.

93. del Pinal F, Moraleda E, de Piero GH, Ruas JS. Outcomes of free adipofascial flaps combined with tenolysis in scarred beds. J Hand Surg Am 2014;39:269-79.

94. Elliot D. Surgical management of painful peripheral nerves. Clin Plast Surg 2014;41:589-613.

95. Cordova A, D'Arpa S, Moschella F. Gracilis free muscle transfer for morpho-functional reconstruction of the lower lip. Head Neck 2008;30:684-9.

Plastic and Aesthetic Research
ISSN 2349-6150 (Online)   2347-9264 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: