1. Kreiger N, Kelsey JL, Harris C, Pastides H. Injuries to the upper extremity: patterns of occurrence. Clin Plast Surg 1981;8:13-9.

2. Aydin MA, Mackinnon SE, Gu XM, Kobayashi J, Kuzon WM Jr. Force deficits in skeletal muscle after delayed reinnervation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2004;113:1712-8.

3. Finkelstein DI, Dooley PC, Luff AR. Recovery of muscle after different periods of denervation and treatments. Muscle Nerve 1993;16:769-77.

4. Fu SY, Gordon T. Contributing factors to poor functional recovery after delayed nerve repair: prolonged denervation. J Neurosci 1995;15 (5 Pt 2):3886-95.

5. Gutmann E, Young JZ. The re-innervation of muscle after various periods of atrophy. J Anat 1944;78(Pt 1-2):15-43.

6. Evans GR. Peripheral nerve injury: a review and approach to tissue engineered constructs. Anat Rec 2001;263:396-404.

7. Mersa B, Tiangco DA, Terzis JK. Efficacy of the "baby-sitter" procedure after prolonged denervation. J Reconstr Microsurg 2000;16:27-35.

8. Terzis JK, Tzafetta K. The "babysitter" procedure: minihypoglossal to facial nerve transfer and cross-facial nerve grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;123:865-76.

9. Bain JR, Veltri KL, Chamberlain D, Fahnestock M. Improved functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle after temporary sensory nerve innervation. Neuroscience 2001;103:503-10.

10. Bain JR, Hason Y, Veltri K, Fahnestock M, Quartly C. Clinical application of sensory protection of denervated muscle. J Neurosurg 2008;109:955-61.

11. Beck-Broichsitter BE, Becker ST, Lamia A, Fregnan F, Geuna S, Sinis N. Sensoric protection after median nerve injury: babysitter-procedure prevents muscular atrophy and improves neuronal recovery. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:724197.

12. Zhao C, Veltri K, Li S, Bain JR, Fahnestock M. NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and GDNF mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle following denervation and sensory protection. J Neurotrauma 2004;21:1468-78.

13. Lien SC, Cederna PS, Kuzon WM Jr. Optimizing skeletal muscle reinnervation with nerve transfer. Hand Clin 2008;24:445-54, vii.

14. Liu H, Kim Y, Chattopadhyay S, Shubayev I, Dolkas J, Shubayev VI. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition enhances the rate of nerve regeneration in vivo by promoting dedifferentiation and mitosis of supporting schwann cells. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2010;69:386-95.

15. Borisov AB, Carlson BM. Cell death in denervated skeletal muscle is distinct from classical apoptosis. Anat Rec 2000 1;258:305-18.

16. Veltri K, Kwiecien JM, Minet W, Fahnestock M, Bain JR. Contribution of the distal nerve sheath to nerve and muscle preservation following denervation andsensoryprotection. J Reconstr Microsurg 2005;21:57-70.

17. Irintchev A, Draguhn A, Wernig A. Reinnervation and recovery of mouse soleus muscle after long-term denervation. Neuroscience 1990;39:231-43.

18. Fex S, Thesleff S. The time required for innervation of denervated muscles by nerve implants. Life Sci 1967;6:635-9.

19. Mirsky R, Jessen KR. The neurobiology of Schwann cells. Brain Pathol 1999;9:293-311.

20. Bader D. Reinnervation of motor endplate-containing and motor endplate-less muscle grafts. Dev Biol 1980;77:315-27.

21. Sanes JR, Marshall LM, McMahan UJ. Reinnervation of muscle fiber basal lamina after removal of myofibers. Differentiation of regenerating axons at original synaptic sites. J Cell Biol 1978;78:176-98.

22. Sulaiman OA, Gordon T. Effects of short- and long-term Schwann cell denervation on peripheral nerve regeneration, myelination, and size. Glia 2000;32:234-46.

23. Elsohemy A, Butler R, Bain JR, Fahnestock M. Sensory protection of rat muscle spindles following peripheral nerve injury and reinnervation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2009;124:1860-8.

24. Wang H, Gu Y, Xu J, Shen L, Li J. Comparative study of different surgical procedures using sensory nerves or neurons for delaying atrophy of denervated skeletal muscle. J Hand Surg Am 2001;26:326-31.

25. Hynes NM, Bain JR, Thoma A, Veltri K, Maguire JA. Preservation of denervated muscle by sensory protection in rats. J Reconstr Microsurg 1997;13:337-43.

26. Papakonstantinou KC, Kamin E, Terzis JK. Muscle preservation by prolonged sensory protection. J Reconstr Microsurg 2002;18:173-82.

27. Michalski B, Bain JR, Fahnestock M. Long-term changes in neurotrophic factor expression in distal nerve stump following denervation and reinnervation with motor or sensory nerve. J Neurochem 2008;105:1244-52.

28. Sunderland S, Bradley KC. Denervation atrophy of the distal stump of a severed nerve. J Comp Neurol 1950;93:401-9.

29. Sulaiman OA, Midha R, Munro CA, Matsuyama T, Al-Majed A, Gordon T. Chronic Schwann cell denervation and the presence of a sensory nerve reduce motor axonal regeneration. Exp Neurol 2002;176:342-54.

30. Martini R, Schachner M, Brushart TM. The L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate is preferentially expressed by previously motor axon-associated Schwann cells in reinnervated peripheral nerves. J Neurosci 1994;14 (11 Pt 2):7180-91.

31. Yoshimura K, Asato H, Jejurikar SS, Cederna PS, Urbanchek MG, Kuzon WM, Jr. The effect of two episodes of denervation and reinnervation on skeletal muscle contractile function. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002;109:212-9.

32. Zuijdendorp HM, Tra WM, van Neck JW, Mollis L, Coert JH. Delay of denervation atrophy by sensory protection in an end-to-side neurorrhaphy model: a pilot study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010;63:1949-52.

33. Li QT, Zhang PX, Yin XF, Han N, Kou YH, Deng JX, Jiang BG. Functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle with sensory or mixed nerve protection: a pilot study. PLoS One 2013;8:e79746.

34. Shea JE, Garlick JW, Salama ME, Mendenhall SD, Moran LA, Agarwal JP. Side-to-side nerve bridges reduce muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury in a rodent model. J Surg Res 2014;187:350-8.

35. Magdi Sherif M, Amr AH. Intrinsic hand muscle reinnervation by median-ulnar end-to-side bridge nerve graft: case report. J Hand Surg Am 2010;35:446-50.

36. Hayashi A, Pannucci C, Moradzadeh A, Kawamura D, Magill C, Hunter DA, Tong AY, Parsadanian A, Mackinnon SE, Myckatyn TM. Axotomy or compression is required for axonal sprouting following end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Exp Neurol 2008;211:539-50.

37. Brenner MJ, Dvali L, Hunter DA, Myckatyn TM, Mackinnon SE. Motor neuron regeneration through end-to-side repairs is a function of donor nerve axotomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;120:215-23.

38. Mackinnon SE, McLean JA, Hunter GA. Direct muscle neurotization recovers gastrocnemius muscle function. J Reconstr Microsurg 1993;9:77-80.

39. Brunelli GA, Brunelli GR. Direct muscle neurotization. J Reconstr Microsurg 1993;9:81-90.

40. Swanson AN, Wolfe SW, Khazzam M, Feinberg J, Ehteshami J, Doty S. Comparison of neurotization versus nerve repair in an animal model of chronically denervated muscle. J Hand Surg Am 2008;33:1093-9.

41. Cornbrooks CJ, Carey DJ, McDonald JA, Timpl R, Bunge RP. In vivo and in vitro observations on laminin production by Schwann cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1983;80:3850-4.

42. McGarvey ML, Baron-Van Evercooren A, Kleinman HK, Dubois-Dalcq M. Synthesis and effects of basement membrane components in cultured rat Schwann cells. Dev Biol 1984;105:18-28.

43. Muir D. The potentiation of peripheral nerve sheaths in regeneration and repair. Exp Neurol 2010;223:102-11.

44. Cederna PS, Youssef MK, Asato H, Urbanchek MG, Kuzon WM Jr. Skeletal muscle reinnervation by reduced axonal numbers results in whole muscle force deficits. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000;105:2003-9.

45. Ochi M, Kwong WH, Kimori K, Takemoto S, Chow SP, Ikuta Y. Delay of the denervation process in skeletal muscle by sensory ganglion graft and its clinical application. Plast Reconstr Surg 1996;97:577-86.

46. Ochi M, Kwong WH, Kimori K, Chow SP, Ikuta Y. Reinnervation of denervated skeletal muscles by grafted dorsal root ganglion. Exp Neurol 1992;118:291-301.

47. Cederna PS. Discussion: patterns of target tissue reinnervation and trophic factor expression after nerve grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;131:1001-3.

Plastic and Aesthetic Research
ISSN 2349-6150 (Online)   2347-9264 (Print)


All published articles are preserved here permanently:


All published articles are preserved here permanently: